Snippets

Revision 2 as of 2009-11-20 22:27:33

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open('foo.txt', 'w').write('hello')

#how to loop a certain number (e.g. 10) of times for x in range(10):

  • print x

#how to concatenate a number and a string x = 1 print str(x) + " is a string" print "%s is a string" % x

#how to test if a string contains another string my_string = "abcdef" if "abc" in my_string:

  • has_abc = True

#check if an item is in a list or dictionary or tuple or set my_list = [1, 2, 3, 4, 5] if 1 in my_list:

  • has_one = True

my_dict = {"a":1, "b": 2, "c": 3} if "a" in my_dict:

  • has_a = True

# Lambda (anonymous functions) add = lambda x, y: x + y print add(3,4) # prints "7"

# Reduce from functools import reduce def factorial(x):

  • return reduce(lambda accum, x: accum * x, range(1, x+1), 1)

# Non-destructive sort on key people = [ ... list of people objects ... ] people_by_age = sorted(people, key=lambda person: person.age)

# Ternary expression (i.e. "BOOLEAN ? IF_TRUE : IF_FALSE") print "a" if x == 1 else "b" # Python 2.6 only! # 2.5 or earlier: print (x == 1) and "a" or "b"

# Printing stuff nicely. from pprint import pprint pprint('Complex thing')

# generators/iteration def generate_stuff ():

  • yield "x" yield "y" yield "z"

for item in generate_stuff ():

  • print item

#how to test if a string begins or ends with another string my_string = "abcdef" if my_string.startswith("abc"):

  • starts_with_abc = True

if my string.endswith("def")

  • ends_with_def = True

#how to catch exceptions grades = ['A', 'A-', 'B', 'C'] try:

  • grades.index("F")

except ValueError, inst:

  • #print out error info print inst.args

# Catching multiple exceptions in Python. try:

  • "do something"

except (ExceptionOne, ExceptionTwo):

  • # Note: The parens are important. "handle the exception"

# Convert a file url to a file path in a shell script deurledfile=python -c 'import sys, urlparse, urllib; print urllib.unquote(urlparse.urlparse(sys.argv[1]).path)' $1

# change/update value in a file with "=" try:

  • fin = file('file1', 'r') fout = file(fin.name + '.new', 'w') for line in fin:
    • fields = line.split('=') # Separate variable from value if "keyname" == fields[0].strip():
      • line = "%s='%s'\n" % (fields[0], "newvalue")
      fout.write(line)
    • fout.close() fin.close() os.rename(fout.name, fin.name)

except (OSError, IOError), e:

  • print("can't update the file")

# how to make money in open source 1. get developers 2. bzr commit 3. 4. profit

# how to generate pretty charts # http://yokozar.org/blog/archives/48 import cairoplot

chartTitle = "Simulated model of Wine development" # Appears at the top of the chart produced at the end chartData = {"Working Apps" : [], "Happy Users" : []} for x in xrange(100):

  • chartData["Working Apps"].append(float(x)) chartData["Happy Users"].append(float(x))
  • x_labels = [ "Project start", "25% bugs solved", "50% bugs solved", "75% bugs solved", "All bugs solved" ]

y_labels = [ "0%", "25%", "50%", "75%", "100%" ] cairoplot.dot_line_plot( "wine-model-results", chartData, 600, 600, x_labels = x_labels,

  • y_labels = y_labels, axis = True, grid = True, x_title = chartTitle, y_title = "Percentage", series_legend=True )

#how to play a sound import gst player = gst.element_factory_make("playbin", "player") player.set_property("uri", "file:///usr/share/sounds/ubuntu/stereo/bell.ogg") player.set_state(gst.STATE_PLAYING) or import pygame pygame.mixer.init() pygame.mixer.music.load("music.ogg") pygame.mixer.music.play()

#notify-osd import pynotify

n = pynotify.Notification("message name", "message", "icon") n.show()

# more notify-osd stuff

# get the output of a command import subprocess

date = subprocess.Popen(['date', '+%c'], stdout=subprocess.PIPE, stderr=subprocess.PIPE) (out, err) = date.communicate() print 'exit code', date.returncode

#open a link in a web browser import webbrowser

url = 'http://google.com/' webbrowser.open_new(url)

#get the text for an html page from the web import urllib f = urllib.urlopen(day_url) html = f.read()

  • #create a stock cancel button and pack it into the vbox
    • cancel_button = gtk.Button(stock=gtk.STOCK_CANCEL) cancel_button.show() cancel_button.connect("clicked", on_cancel_clicked)

# Parse XML file import xml.dom try:

  • dom = xml.dom.minidom.parseString(xml_content)

except ExpatError, e:

  • print >> sys.stderr, 'Invalid XML:', e

for p_node in dom.getElementsByTagName('p'):

  • print 'class of paragraph', p.attributes['class'] for child in p_node.childNodes:
    • print 'XML child node:', child

# search a file for a pattern and do something with every match import re for m in re.finditer('bug (\d+) blabla', text):

  • print 'bug number': m.match(1)

# download an URL and process it line by line import urllib for line in urllib.open('http://foo'):

  • print line

# grep all versioned files in a Bazaar tree # Best command ever bzr ls -VR --kind=file --null | xargs -0 grep -In <REGEX> git grep <REGEX>

Creating a Gtk+ TreeView:

# Instantiate the tree store and specify the data types store = gtk.TreeStore(str, gtk.gdk.Pixbuf, int, bool)

# Create a TreeViewColumn col = gtk.TreeViewColumn("File") # Create a column cell to display text col_cell_text = gtk.CellRendererText() # Create a column cell to display an image col_cell_img = gtk.CellRendererPixbuf() # Add the cells to the column col.pack_start(col_cell_img, False) col.pack_start(col_cell_text, True) # Bind the text cell to column 0 of the tree's model col.add_attribute(col_cell_text, "text", 0) # Bind the image cell to column 1 of the tree's model col.add_attribute(col_cell_img, "pixbuf", 1)

col2 = gtk.TreeViewColumn("Size") col2_cell_text = gtk.CellRendererText() col2.pack_start(col2_cell_text) col2.add_attribute(col2_cell_text, "text", 2)

# Create the TreeView and set our data store as the model tree = gtk.TreeView(store) # Append the columns to the TreeView tree.append_column(col) tree.append_column(col2)

#make a new ListStore when columns are calculated at runtim col_count = 100 self.list_store = gtk.ListStore(

  • [gobject.TYPE_STRING for i in range(col_count)])

#Put data into desktop CouchDB:

from desktopcouch.records.server import CouchDatabase from desktopcouch.records.record import Record as CouchRecord

db = CouchDatabase("dbname", create=True) record = CouchRecord({"a": 1, "b": 2}, record_type="http://recordtypeurl", record_id=XXX) db.put_record(record)

# Call a desktop CouchDB view:

view = """function(doc) { if (doc) emit(doc._id, doc); }""" if not self.messages.view_exists("myview", "myapp"):

  • self.messages.add_view("myview", view, None, "myapp")

result = self.messages.execute_view("myview", "myapp")

#Creating a new Tomboy note def create_tomboy_note(text):

#Set Pidgin status def set_pidgin_status_text(message):

#How to embed a WebKit renderer in an application: import gtk, webkit gtk.gdk.threads_init()

window = gtk.Window() window.connect("destroy", gtk.main_quit) web = webkit.WebView() web.open("http://ubuntu.com")

window.add(web) window.show_all() gtk.main()

# Put an icon in a Gtk+ text entry GtkWidget *entry = gtk_entry_new(); gtk_entry_set_icon_from_stock(

  • GTK_ENTRY(entry), // specify which entry widget GTK_ENTRY_ICON_SECONDARY, // put the icon at the end GTK_STOCK_ABOUT); // make it display the "about" icon

# Display a progress bar in a Gtk+ entry GtkWidget *entry = gtk_entry_new(); gtk_entry_set_text(GTK_ENTRY(entry), "This is a test"); gtk_entry_set_progress_fraction(GTK_ENTRY(entry), 0.5);

#Get Gtk+ theme colors def get_theme_colors(w):

  • d = {} for i in ["base", "text", "fg", "bg"]:
    • d[i] = Color.from_gtk_color(
      • getattr(w.get_style(), i)[gtk.STATE_NORMAL].to_string())
      d["%s_selected" % i] = Color.from_gtk_color(
      • getattr(w.get_style(), i)[gtk.STATE_SELECTED].to_string())
    return d

# Draw a rounded rectangle in Cairo c = self.window.cairo_create() x,y,w,h = w.allocation # x, y, width, height

c.move_to(x+r,y) c.line_to(x+w-r,y); c.curve_to(x+w,y,x+w,y,x+w,y+r) c.line_to(x+w,y+h-r); c.curve_to(x+w,y+h,x+w,y+h,x+w-r,y+h) c.line_to(x+r,y+h); c.curve_to(x,y+h,x,y+h,x,y+h-r) c.line_to(x,y+r); c.curve_to(x,y,x,y,x+r,y) c.close_path() c.fill()

# A Gtk+ label that supports text wrapping with fluid reflow

import gtk, pango, gobject

class WrapLabel(gtk.Frame):

  • def init(self, markup = None, text = None):

    • gtk.Frame.init(self) self.set_shadow_type(gtk.SHADOW_NONE) self.pango_layout = self.create_pango_layout(text or "") if markup: self.pango_layout.set_markup(markup) self.pango_layout.set_wrap(pango.WRAP_WORD_CHAR)

      ev = gtk.EventBox() ev.set_visible_window(False) self.add(ev)

    def do_expose_event(self, event):
    • gtk.Frame.do_expose_event(self, event) self.set_size_request(-1, (self.pango_layout.get_size()[1] // pango.SCALE + 10)) x,y,w,h = self.allocation gc = self.window.new_gc() self.pango_layout.set_width(w * pango.SCALE) self.window.draw_layout(gc, x, y, self.pango_layout)

gobject.type_register(WrapLabel)

w = gtk.Window() w.connect("destroy", gtk.main_quit)

label = WrapLabel("This is a test") w.add(label)

w.show_all() gtk.main()

# Build a Gtk+ toolbar with UIManager def on_action(action):

  • print "Action performed!"

actions = gtk.ActionGroup("Actions") actions.add_actions([

  • ("bold", gtk.STOCK_BOLD, "_Bold", "<ctrl>B", None, on_action), ("italic", gtk.STOCK_ITALIC, "_Italic", "<ctrl>I", None, on_action), ("underline", gtk.STOCK_UNDERLINE, "_Underline", "<ctrl>U", None, on_action),

])

ui_def = """ <toolbar name="toolbar_format">

  • <toolitem action="bold" /> <toolitem action="italic" /> <toolitem action="underline" />

</toolbar> """

ui = gtk.UIManager() ui.insert_action_group(actions) ui.add_ui_from_string(ui_def)

vb = gtk.VBox() vb.pack_start(ui.get_widget("/toolbar_format"), False) vb.pack_start(editor, True)

# what to do instead of using eval() [this is safe security-wise] import ast ast.literal_eval ('[1,2,3,(4,5,6)]')

# How to use doctests well. # Don't.

# getting your packages updated # import os # os.system('evolution mailto:seb128@debian.org?subject=hi') # actually, he'll notice by himself. from time import sleep sleep (8 * 60 * 60) # go to bed

# How to set up a threaded GTK+ app import pygtk pygtk.require('2.0') import gobject import gtk

from threading import Thread

class Window(gtk.Window):

  • GtkWindow wrapper

    def init(self):

    • gtk.Window.init(self) self.set_title("Threaded GTK+ Sample") self.set_default_size(320, 240) Thread(target=self.timeout_thread).start()

    def timeout_thread():
    • Threaded timeout demo gtk.gdk.threads_enter() self.show() gtk.gdk_threads_leave()

if name == "main":

  • gobject.threads_init() gtk.gdk.threads_init() try:
    • win = Window() win.show() gtk.gdk.threads_enter() gtk.main() gtk.gdk.threads_leave()

    except KeyboardInterrupt:

    • gtk.main_quit()

#set the text on a pygtk widget in a Quickly app widge = self.builder.get_object("object_name").set_text(my_string)

#get the text for a pygtk widdget in a Quickly app self.builder.get_object("object_name").get_text(my_string)

#download an image from the web and save it import urllib img_stream = urllib.urlopen(url) img_file = open(fname,'w') img_file.write(img_stream.read()) del img_file

#download a large file using a read buffer, saves memory import urllib img_stream = urllib.urlopen(url) img_file = open(fname,'w') while 1:

  • buf = img_stream.read(4096) if buf == "":
    • break
    img_file.write(buf)

del img_file

# Still dealing with large files # Compute the md5sum of a file without loading it all in memory f = open(filepath) digest = md5.new() while 1:

  • buf = f.read(4096) if buf == "":
    • break
    digest.update(buf)

f.close() print digest.hexdigest()

#how to use couchgrid and change the label of the column from desktopcouch.records.couchgrid import CouchGrid db="db name" record_type="record type" #the keys field is for to label the column and give a discription of what is in that column keys=["key","another key"] self.couchgrid=CouchGrid(db,record_type=record_type,keys=keys) self.couchgrid.show()

#put the couchgrid into a vbox self.builder.get_object("vbox1").pack_end(self.couchgrid) self.couchgrid.editable=True

#change the name of the couchgrid column couchgrid.get_column(0).set_title("some name")

#make the couchgrid column name dissapear self.couchgrid.set_headers_visible (False)

#how to get stuff from a desktop couch db

from desktopcouch.records.server import CouchDatabase from desktopcouch.records.record import Record

couchdb = CouchDatabase("db name",create=True) record_type="record type" results = couchdb.get_records(record_type=record_type,create_view=True)

#this takes the output of results and puts it into a string x x="" for r in results:

  • x+=r.value["key"]+" "

# PDB tip pp locals()

# Parsing a line-based text file with separators # Not that advanced, but I seem to have to write this all the time.

def parse_line(lines, separator):

  • for line in lines:
    • yield [token.strip() for token in line.split(separator)]
  • #create a pygtk window on the fly
    • test_window = gtk.Window(gtk.WINDOW_TOPLEVEL) test_window.connect("destroy", gtk.main_quit) test_window.set_title("my title") test_window.set_default_size(200,75) test_window.show()

# reading a bunch of stuff out of a function total = [] for chunk in iter(lambda: file.read(4096), ):

  • total.append(chunk)

result = .join(total)

# Transposing a list of lists. zip(*list_of_lists)

# easy (if not efficient) sorted merging of two lists (works also for dicts) l1 = [4, 5, 6] l2 = [4, 6, 7] for item in sorted(set(l1).union(l2)):

  • # do whatever

#add a message indicator import indicate, time

def display(indicator):

  • print "Ah, my indicator has been displayed"

def server_display(server):

  • print "Ah, my server has been displayed"

server = indicate.indicate_server_ref_default() server.set_type("message.im") server.set_desktop_file("/usr/share/applications/empathy.desktop") server.connect("server-display", server_display) indicator = indicate.Indicator() indicator.set_property("subtype", "im") indicator.set_property("sender", "IM Client Test") indicator.set_property_time("time", time.time()) indicator.show() indicator.connect("user-display", display)

# post a microblog message using gwibber from karmic bus = dbus.SessionBus() db_mb_obj = bus.get_object("com.Gwibber", "/com/gwibber/Microblog") microblog = dbus.Interface(db_mb_obj, "com.Gwibber") import gwibber, gwibber.config

accounts = gwibber.config.Accounts() args = ["This is a test message"] for account in accounts:

  • if account["send_enabled"]:
    • acctid = account["id"]
    microblog.operation({
    • "source": "lolz", "id": "send-%s-%s" % (acctid, time.time()), "accountid": acctid, "args": args, "opname": "send", })

# post a microblog message using gwibber in lucid (not yet uploaded) import gwibber.utils foo = gwibber.utils.GwibberPublic() foo.post("This is a test message")

# parse command line arguments import optparse op = optparse.OptionParser('%prog [options] inputfile') op.add_option('-f', '--force', action='store_true', dest='force', default=False, help='Delete my files without asking') op.add_option('-o', '--output-file', dest='outfile', help='Output file path; if not given, output to stdout') (opts, args) = op.parse_args() if opts.force:

  • print 'force enabled'

input_file = args[0] if opts.outfile:

  • outfile = open(opts.outfile, 'w')

else:

  • outfile = sys.stdout

# SQLite import sqlite3 as dbapi2 db = dbapi2.connect('mydb.sqlite')

cur1 = db.cursor() cur1.execute('CREATE TABLE friends (name VARCHAR(255), phone int)') cur1.commit()

cur1 = db.cursor() cur1.execute('SELECT phone FROM friends WHERE name = ?', ['Fred']) # does proper quoting for (phone) in cur1:

  • print 'Fred has telephone number', phone

# Apply file rights from src to dest import os, stat st = os.stat(src_file_name) mode = stat.S_IMODE(st.st_mode) os.chmod(dest_file_name, mode)

#translations using gettext import gettext

#print hello world(it needs to be translated first though) print gettext.gettext("hello")

# A really simple unittest module.

import unittest

class TestThing(unittest.TestCase):

  • def setUp(self):
    • super(unittest.TestCase, self).setUp() self.data = [2, 3, 5]

    def test_list_reversal(self):
    • backwards = reversed(self.data) self.assertEqual([5, 3, 2], backwards)
    def tearDown(self):
    • del self.data

# Note that you wouldn't really use setUp and tearDown for something this # simple. Use them when you have something fairly complicated to set up.

# Look for a program that is already registered over dbus import dbus session_bus = dbus.SessionBus() if session_bus.request_name ('net.soft.name') != 1:

  • print 'someone already has this name' exit()

#open a file from a dialog dialog = gtk.FileChooserDialog("Select a file", w, gtk.FILE_CHOOSER_ACTION_OPEN,

  • (gtk.STOCK_CANCEL, gtk.RESPONSE_CANCEL, gtk.STOCK_OPEN, gtk.RESPONSE_OK))
  • if dialog.run() == gtk.RESPONSE_OK:
    • fn = dialog.get_filename() if os.path.exists(fn):
      • print fn
    dialog.destroy()