UbuntuGuide

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= Unofficial Ubuntu 5.04 Starter Guide - Wiki fixed edition = = Ubuntu 5.04 Starter Guide - Wiki edition =
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'''CURRENTLY IN PROGRESS'''

Before you get started:
   3. If you see black box, means you have to execute the commands a Terminal (Applications -> System Tools -> Terminal)
   4. To reduce typo mistakes, copy and paste the commands into Terminal mode (right click on the commands -> "Copy" or "Paste")
   5. "sudo" means superuser do. you can read more about it at RootSudo
   8. many of the commands (such as `apt-get` and `wget`) on this page require an Internet connection to install/update/download programs
   9. To download a file, right click on the link -> Select "Save Link As..." -> Make sure the file name and extension are correct

[[TableOfContents()]]

=== Getting Started ===

==== Q: What is Ubuntu? ====

   1. http://www.ubuntulinux.org/ubuntu

==== Q: Where can I view Ubuntu screenshots? ====

   1. http://shots.osdir.com/slideshows/slideshow.php?release=305&slide=1

==== Q: Where can I find a list of all the programs/libraries that comes with Ubuntu? ====

   You can find a list of all available packeges at these locations as well as in [wiki:Self:SynapticHowo Synaptic]
   1. http://packages.ubuntu.com/hoary
   1. http://distrowatch.com/table.php?distribution=ubuntu

==== Q: Where can I find help for Ubuntu? ====

   1. Mailing Lists
   2. Web Forums http://forums.ubuntulinux.com
   3. IRC Channel irc://irc.freenode.net/ubuntu


=== Repositories ===

==== Q: How to add extra repositories? ====

   See AddingRepositoriesHowto
  
==== Q: How Can I backup/restore downloaded repositories cache? ====

   To backup downloaded repositories cache run this command in a terminal
{{{
sudo tar zcvf apt.tgz /etc/apt/ /var/lib/apt/ /var/cache/apt/
}}}
   3. To restore downloaded repositories cache run this command in a terminal
{{{
sudo tar zxvf apt.tgz -C /
}}}

=== Ubuntu Updates ===



==== Q: How to manually update Ubuntu? ====

   Read SynapticHowto
   or in a terminal run
{{{
sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get upgrade
}}}

=== Add-On Applications ===
==== Q: How to install Menu Editor for GNOME? ====

   Either use [wiki:Self:SynapticHowto Synaptic] to install 'smeg'
   or run the following in a terminal
{{{
sudo apt-get install smeg
}}}

   Log out, then log in again.

   You can now access SMEG via
    Applications -> System Tools -> Smeg Menu Editor

==== Q: How do I install the Clipboard Daemon for GNOME? ====
Run the following commands in a terminal
{{{
wget -c http://frankandjacq.com/ubuntuguide/gnome-clipboard-daemon-1.0.bin.tar.bz2
sudo tar jxvf gnome-clipboard-daemon-1.0.bin.tar.bz2 -C /usr/bin/
sudo chown root:root /usr/bin/gnome-clipboard-daemon
sudo chmod 755 /usr/bin/gnome-clipboard-daemon
sudo gnome-clipboard-daemon &
}}}
   Now start the sessions editor:
    System -> Preferences -> Sessions
   In the Startup Programs Tab click '''Add'''
   In the `Startup Command box` enter: `gnome-clipboard-daemon`
   Set the `Order` to `80`

==== Q: How do I install J2SE Runtime Environment (JRE) with Plug-in for Mozilla Firefox? ====

   Ensure you have the multiverse repository enabled (See AddingRepostoriesHowTo)

    sudo apt-get install sun-j2re1.5
    java -version

   4. Restart Mozilla Firefox

==== Q: How to install Flash Player (Macromedia Flash) Plug-in for Mozilla Firefox? ====

   Ensure you have the multiverse repository enabled (See AddingRepostoriesHowTo)
  
   Now either use [wiki:self:SynapticHowto Synaptic] to download `flashplayer-mozilla`
   or run
{{{
sudo apt-get install flashplayer-mozilla
}}}
   If you are running firefox, quit and restart for this to become available.

==== Q: How to install PDF Reader (Adobe Reader) with Plug-in for Mozilla Firefox? ====

   1. Read General Notes
   2. Read How to add extra repositories?
   3.

sudo apt-get install acroread
sudo apt-get install mozilla-acroread
sudo apt-get install acroread-plugins

   4. Read How to refresh GNOME panel?
   5. Applications -> Office -> Adobe Reader
   6. Restart Mozilla Firefox

Q: How to install Download Manager (Downloader for X)?

   1. Read General Notes
   2. Read How to add extra repositories?
   3.

sudo apt-get install d4x

   4. Read How to refresh GNOME panel?
   5. Applications -> Internet -> Downloader for X

Q: How to install FTP Client (gFTP)?

   1. Read General Notes
   2. Read How to add extra repositories?
   3.

sudo apt-get install gftp

   4. Read How to refresh GNOME panel?
   5. Applications -> Internet -> gFTP

Q: How to install P2P BitTorrent Client (Azureus)?

   1. Read General Notes
   2. Read How to install J2SE Runtime Environment (JRE) with Plug-in for Mozilla Firefox?
   3.

sudo apt-get install azureus

   4. Read How to refresh GNOME panel?
   5. Applications -> Internet -> Azureus

Q: How to install P2P eMule Client (aMule)?

   1. Read General Notes
   2. Read How to add extra repositories?
   3.

sudo apt-get install amule

   4. Read How to refresh GNOME panel?
   5. Applications -> Internet -> aMule

Q: How to install P2P Gnutella Client (LimeWire)?

   1. Read General Notes
   2. Read How to install J2SE Runtime Environment (JRE) with Plug-in for Mozilla Firefox?
   3.

wget -c http://frankandjacq.com/ubuntuguide/LimeWireSoftOther.zip
sudo unzip -u LimeWireSoftOther.zip -d /opt/
sudo chown -R root:root /opt/LimeWire/
sudo gedit /usr/bin/runLime.sh

   4. Insert the following lines into the new file

cd /opt/LimeWire/
./runLime.sh

   5. Save the edited file (sample)
   6.

sudo chmod +x /usr/bin/runLime.sh
sudo gedit /usr/share/applications/LimeWire.desktop

   7. Insert the following lines into the new file

[Desktop Entry]
Name=LimeWire
Comment=LimeWire
Exec=runLime.sh
Icon=/opt/LimeWire/LimeWire.ico
Terminal=false
Type=Application
Categories=Application;Network;

   8. Save the edited file (sample)
   9. Read How to refresh GNOME panel?
  10. Applications -> Internet -> LimeWire

Q: How to install Messenger (Skype)?

   1. Read General Notes
   2. Read How to add extra repositories?
   3.

sudo apt-get install libqt3c102-mt
wget -c http://frankandjacq.com/ubuntuguide/skype_1.1.0.20-1_i386.deb
sudo dpkg -i skype_1.1.0.20-1_i386.deb

   4. Read How to refresh GNOME panel?
   5. Applications -> Internet -> Skype

Q: How to install WinPopup (LinPopUp)?

   1. Read General Notes
   2. Read How to add extra repositories?
   3. Read How to install Samba Server for files/folders sharing service?
   4.

sudo apt-get install linpopup
sudo gedit /usr/share/applications/linpopup.desktop

   5. Insert the following lines into the new file

[Desktop Entry]
Name=LinPopUp
Comment=LinPopUp
Exec=linpopup
Icon=/usr/share/pixmaps/linpopup.xpm
Terminal=false
Type=Application
Categories=Application;Utility;

   6. Save the edited file (sample)
   7. Read How to refresh GNOME panel?
   8. Applications -> Accessories -> LinPopUp

Q: How to install Multimedia Codecs?

   1. Read General Notes
   2. Read How to add extra repositories?
   3.

sudo apt-get install gstreamer0.8-plugins
sudo apt-get install gstreamer0.8-lame
sudo apt-get install gstreamer0.8-ffmpeg
sudo apt-get install w32codecs
sudo apt-get install libdivx4linux
sudo apt-get install lame
sudo apt-get install sox
sudo apt-get install ffmpeg
sudo apt-get install mjpegtools
sudo apt-get install vorbis-tools
gst-register-0.8

Q: How to install DVD playback capability?

   1. Read General Notes
   2. Read How to add extra repositories?
   3.

sudo apt-get install libdvdcss2

Q: How to install Multimedia Player (xine-ui)?

   1. Read General Notes
   2. Read How to add extra repositories?
   3. Read How to install Multimedia Codecs?
   4. Read How to install DVD playback capability?
   5.

sudo apt-get install xine-ui

   6. Associate xine-ui to play multimedia files

gconftool-2 --type string --set /desktop/gnome/volume_manager/autoplay_dvd_command "xine dvd://"
sudo rm -f /usr/share/applnk/Multimedia/xine.desktop
sudo ln -fs /usr/share/xine/desktop/xine.desktop /usr/share/applications/
sudo cp /usr/share/applications/defaults.list /usr/share/applications/defaults.list_backup
sudo sed -e 's/totem.desktop/xine.desktop/g' /usr/share/applications/defaults.list_backup > /tmp/defaults.list
sudo mv /tmp/defaults.list /usr/share/applications/defaults.list

   7. Read How to refresh GNOME panel?
   8. Read How to refresh GNOME desktop?
   9. Applications -> Sound & Video -> xine

Q: How to install Multimedia Player (MPlayer) with Plug-in for Mozilla Firefox?

   1. Read General Notes
   2. Read How to add extra repositories?
   3. Read How to install Multimedia Codecs?
   4. Read How to install DVD playback capability?
   5.

sudo apt-get install mplayer-386
sudo apt-get install mplayer-fonts
sudo apt-get install mozilla-mplayer
sudo cp /etc/mplayer/mplayer.conf /etc/mplayer/mplayer.conf_backup
sudo gedit /etc/mplayer/mplayer.conf

   6. Find this line

...
vo=x11, # To specify default video driver (see -vo help for
...

   7. Replace with the following line

vo=xv, # To specify default video driver (see -vo help for

   8. Save the edited file (sample)
   9. Read How to refresh GNOME panel?
  10. Applications -> Sound & Video -> MPlayer
  11. Restart Mozilla Firefox

Q: How to install Multimedia Player (XMMS)?

   1. Read General Notes
   2. Read How to add extra repositories?
   3. Read How to install Multimedia Codecs?
   4.

sudo apt-get install xmms
wget -c http://frankandjacq.com/ubuntuguide/xmms-wma_1.0.4-2_i386.deb
sudo dpkg -i xmms-wma_1.0.4-2_i386.deb

   5. Associate XMMS to play MP3/M3U/WAV files

sudo cp /usr/share/applications/defaults.list /usr/share/applications/defaults.list_backup
sudo cp /usr/share/applications/defaults.list /tmp/defaults.list_tmp
sudo sed -e 's/audio\/mpeg=.*/audio\/mpeg=XMMS.desktop/g' /tmp/defaults.list_tmp > /tmp/defaults.mp3
sudo sed -e 's/audio\/x-mpegurl=.*/audio\/x-mpegurl=XMMS.desktop/g' /tmp/defaults.mp3 > /tmp/defaults.m3u
sudo sed -e 's/audio\/x-wav=.*/audio\/x-wav=XMMS.desktop/g' /tmp/defaults.m3u > /tmp/defaults.list
sudo mv /tmp/defaults.list /usr/share/applications/defaults.list
sudo rm -f /tmp/defaults.*

   6. Read How to refresh GNOME panel?
   7. Read How to refresh GNOME desktop?
   8. Applications -> Sound & Video -> XMMS

Q: How to install Multimedia Player (RealPlayer)?

   1. Read General Notes
   2. Read How to add extra repositories?
   3.

sudo apt-get install realplayer

   4. Read How to refresh GNOME panel?
   5. Applications -> Sound & Video -> RealPlayer 10

Q: How to install Stream Directory Browser (streamtuner)?

   1. Read General Notes
   2. Read How to add extra repositories?
   3.

sudo apt-get install streamtuner
sudo apt-get install streamripper

   4. Read How to refresh GNOME panel?
   5. Applications -> Sound & Video -> streamtuner

Q: How to install ID3 Tag Editor (EasyTAG)?

   1. Read General Notes
   2. Read How to add extra repositories?
   3.

sudo apt-get install easytag

   4. Read How to refresh GNOME panel?
   5. Applications -> Sound & Video -> EasyTAG

Q: How to install Video Editor (Kino)?

   1. Read General Notes
   2. Read How to add extra repositories?
   3. Read How to install Multimedia Codecs?
   4.

sudo apt-get install kino
sudo apt-get install kinoplus
sudo apt-get install kino-timfx
sudo apt-get install kino-dvtitler

   5. Read How to refresh GNOME panel?
   6. Applications -> Sound & Video -> Kino Video Editor

Q: How to install Audio Editor (Audacity)?

   1. Read General Notes
   2. Read How to add extra repositories?
   3. Read How to install Multimedia Codecs?
   4.

sudo apt-get install audacity

   5. Read How to refresh GNOME panel?
   6. Applications -> Sound & Video -> Audacity

Q: How to install DVD Ripper (dvd::rip)?

   1. Read General Notes
   2. Read How to add extra repositories?
   3. Read How to install Multimedia Codecs?
   4. Read How to install DVD playback capability?
   5. Read How to install Multimedia Player (MPlayer) with Plug-in for Mozilla Firefox?
   6. Read How to install RAR Archiver (rar)?
   7.

sudo apt-get install dvdrip
sudo apt-get install vcdimager
sudo apt-get install cdrdao
sudo apt-get install subtitleripper
sudo ln -fs /usr/bin/rar /usr/bin/rar-2.80
sudo gedit /usr/share/applications/dvdrip.desktop

   8. Insert the following lines into the new file

[Desktop Entry]
Name=dvd::rip
Comment=dvd::rip
Exec=dvdrip
Icon=/usr/share/perl5/Video/DVDRip/icon.xpm
Terminal=false
Type=Application
Categories=Application;AudioVideo;

   9. Save the edited file (sample)
  10. Read How to refresh GNOME panel?
  11. Applications -> Sound & Video -> dvd::rip

Q: How to install CD Ripper (Goobox)?

   1. Read General Notes
   2. Read How to add extra repositories?
   3. Read How to install Multimedia Codecs?
   4.

sudo apt-get install goobox
sudo rm -f /usr/share/applications/goobox.desktop
sudo gedit /usr/share/applications/goobox.desktop

   5. Insert the following lines into the new file

[Desktop Entry]
Name=CD Player & Ripper
Comment=Play and extract CDs
Exec=goobox
Icon=goobox.png
Terminal=false
Type=Application
Categories=Application;AudioVideo;

   6. Save the edited file (sample)
   7. Read How to refresh GNOME panel?
   8. Applications -> Sound & Video -> CD Player & Ripper

Q: How to install Email Client (Mozilla Thunderbird)?

   1. Read General Notes
   2. Read How to add extra repositories?
   3.

sudo apt-get install mozilla-thunderbird

   4. Read How to refresh GNOME panel?
   5. Applications -> Internet -> Thunderbird Mail Client

Q: How to install Newsreader (Pan)?

   1. Read General Notes
   2. Read How to add extra repositories?
   3.

sudo apt-get install pan

   4. Read How to refresh GNOME panel?
   5. Applications -> Internet -> Pan Newsreader

Q: How to install RSS/RDF/Atom Newsreader (RSSOwl)?

   1. Read General Notes
   2. Read How to install J2SE Runtime Environment (JRE) with Plug-in for Mozilla Firefox?
   3.

wget -c http://frankandjacq.com/ubuntuguide/rssowl_linux_1_1_2_bin.tar.gz
sudo tar zxvf rssowl_linux_1_1_2_bin.tar.gz -C /opt/
sudo chown -R root:root /opt/rssowl_linux_1_1_2_bin/
sudo gedit /usr/bin/runRSSOwl.sh

   4. Insert the following lines into the new file

export MOZILLA_FIVE_HOME=/usr/lib/mozilla-firefox
export LD_LIBRARY_PATH=$LD_LIBRARY_PATH:${MOZILLA_FIVE_HOME}:${LD_LIBRARY_PATH}
cd /opt/rssowl_linux_1_1_2_bin/
./run.sh

   5. Save the edited file (sample)
   6.

sudo chmod +x /usr/bin/runRSSOwl.sh
sudo gedit /usr/share/applications/RSSOwl.desktop

   7. Insert the following lines into the new file

[Desktop Entry]
Name=RSSOwl
Comment=RSSOwl
Exec=runRSSOwl.sh
Icon=/opt/rssowl_linux_1_1_2_bin/rssowl.xpm
Terminal=false
Type=Application
Categories=Application;Network;

   8. Save the edited file (sample)
   9. Read How to refresh GNOME panel?
  10. Applications -> Internet -> RSSOwl

Q: How to install Web Authoring System (Nvu)?

   1. Read General Notes
   2. Read How to add extra repositories?
   3.

sudo apt-get install nvu
sudo rm -f /usr/share/applications/nvu.desktop
sudo gedit /usr/share/applications/nvu.desktop

   4. Insert the following lines into the new file

[Desktop Entry]
Name=Nvu
Comment=Web Development Editor
Exec=nvu
Icon=nvu.xpm
Terminal=false
Type=Application
Categories=Application;Network;

   5. Save the edited file (sample)
   6. Read How to refresh GNOME panel?
   7. Applications -> Internet -> Nvu

Q: How to install Project Management Application (Planner)?

   1. Read General Notes
   2. Read How to add extra repositories?
   3.

sudo apt-get install planner

   4. Read How to refresh GNOME panel?
   5. Applications -> Office -> Project Management

Q: How to install Accounting Application (GnuCash)?

   1. Read General Notes
   2. Read How to add extra repositories?
   3.

sudo apt-get install gnucash
sudo rm -fr /usr/share/gnome/apps/Applications/
sudo gedit /usr/share/applications/GnuCash.desktop

   4. Insert the following lines into the new file

[Desktop Entry]
Name=GnuCash
Comment=GnuCash Personal Finance
Exec=gnucash
Icon=/usr/share/pixmaps/gnucash/gnucash-icon.png
Terminal=false
Type=Application
Categories=Application;Office;

   5. Save the edited file (sample)
   6. Read How to refresh GNOME panel?
   7. Applications -> Office -> GnuCash

Q: How to install Desktop Publishing Application (Scribus)?

   1. Read General Notes
   2. Read How to add extra repositories?
   3.

sudo apt-get install scribus

   4. Read How to refresh GNOME panel?
   5. Applications -> Office -> Scribus

Q: How to install Diagram Editor (Dia)?

   1. Read General Notes
   2. Read How to add extra repositories?
   3.

sudo apt-get install dia-gnome

   4. Read How to refresh GNOME panel?
   5. Applications -> Graphics -> Dia

Q: How to install Compiled HTML Help (CHM) Viewer (xCHM)?

   1. Read General Notes
   2. Read How to add extra repositories?
   3.

sudo apt-get install xchm

   4. Read How to refresh GNOME panel?
   5. Applications -> Graphics -> xCHM

Q: How to install CD/DVD Burning Application (GnomeBaker)?

   1. Read General Notes
   2. Read How to add extra repositories?
   3.

sudo apt-get install gnomebaker

   4. Read How to refresh GNOME panel?
   5. Applications -> Accessories -> GnomeBaker CD/DVD Creator

Q: How to install Dialup PPP Client (GNOME PPP)?

   1. Read General Notes
   2. Read How to add extra repositories?
   3.

sudo apt-get install gnome-ppp

   4. Read How to refresh GNOME panel?
   5. Applications -> Internet -> GNOME PPP

Q: How to install Broadband ADSL/PPPoE Client (RP-PPPoE)?

   1. Read General Notes
   2. Read How to install Basic Compilers (build-essential)?
   3.

wget -c http://frankandjacq.com/ubuntuguide/rp-pppoe-3.5.tar.gz
sudo tar zxvf rp-pppoe-3.5.tar.gz -C /opt/
sudo chown -R root:root /opt/rp-pppoe-3.5/
sudo gedit /usr/share/applications/RP-PPPoE.desktop

   4. Insert the following lines into the new file

[Desktop Entry]
Name=RP-PPPoE
Comment=RP-PPPoE
Exec=gksudo /opt/rp-pppoe-3.5/go-gui
Icon=
Terminal=false
Type=Application
Categories=Application;Network;

   5. Save the edited file (sample)
   6. Read How to refresh GNOME panel?
   7. Applications -> Internet -> RP-PPPoE

Q: How to install Boot-Up Manager (BUM)?

   1. Read General Notes
   2.

wget -c http://frankandjacq.com/ubuntuguide/bum_1.3.0-1_all.deb
sudo dpkg -i bum_1.3.0-1_all.deb

   3. Read How to refresh GNOME panel?
   4. System -> Administration -> Boot-Up Manager

Q: How to install Partition Editor (GParted)?

   1. Read General Notes
   2. Read How to add extra repositories?
   3.

sudo apt-get install gparted

   4. Read How to refresh GNOME panel?
   5. Applications -> System Tools -> GParted

Q: How to install Firewall (Firestarter)?

   1. Read General Notes
   2. Read How to add extra repositories?
   3.

sudo apt-get install firestarter

   4. Read How to refresh GNOME panel?
   5. Applications -> System Tools -> Firestarter

Q: How to install Vulnerability Scanner (Nessus)?

   1. Read General Notes
   2. Read How to add extra repositories?
   3.

sudo apt-get install nessus
sudo apt-get install nessusd
sudo nessus-adduser
sudo ln -fs /etc/init.d/nessusd /etc/rc2.d/S20nessusd
sudo /etc/init.d/nessusd start
sudo gedit /usr/share/applications/Nessus.desktop

   4. Insert the following lines into the new file

[Desktop Entry]
Name=Nessus
Comment=Nessus
Exec=nessus
Icon=/usr/share/pixmaps/nessus.xpm
Terminal=false
Type=Application
Categories=Application;System;

   5. Save the edited file (sample)
   6. Read How to refresh GNOME panel?
   7. Applications -> System Tools -> Nessus

Q: How to install RAR Archiver (rar)?

   1. Read General Notes
   2. Read How to add extra repositories?
   3.

sudo apt-get install rar
sudo ln -fs /usr/bin/rar /usr/bin/unrar

   4. Applications -> Accessories -> Archive Manager

Q: How to install Extra Fonts?

   1. Read General Notes
   2. Read How to add extra repositories?
   3.

sudo apt-get install xfonts-intl-arabic
sudo apt-get install xfonts-intl-asian
sudo apt-get install xfonts-intl-chinese
sudo apt-get install xfonts-intl-chinese-big
sudo apt-get install xfonts-intl-european
sudo apt-get install xfonts-intl-japanese
sudo apt-get install xfonts-intl-japanese-big
sudo apt-get install xfonts-intl-phonetic
sudo apt-get install gsfonts-x11
sudo apt-get install msttcorefonts
sudo fc-cache -f -v
sudo cp /etc/fonts/local.conf /etc/fonts/local.conf_backup
sudo gedit /etc/fonts/local.conf

   4. Find this section

...
<!-- Uncomment below to enable the freetype autohinter module -->
<!--
  <match target="font">
    <edit name="autohint" mode="assign">
      <bool>true</bool>
    </edit>
  </match>
-->
...

   5. Replace with the following lines

  <match target="font">
    <edit name="autohint" mode="assign">
      <bool>true</bool>
    </edit>
  </match>

   6. Save the edited file (sample)
   7. Read How to restart GNOME without rebooting computer?

Q: How to install Chinese Input Method (SCIM)?

   1. Read General Notes
   2. Read How to add extra repositories?
   3. Read How to install Extra Fonts?
   4.

sudo apt-get install scim
sudo apt-get install scim-chinese
sudo apt-get install scim-config-socket
sudo apt-get install scim-gtk2-immodule
sudo apt-get install scim-tables-zh
wget -c http://frankandjacq.com/ubuntuguide/fireflysung-1.3.0.tar.gz
sudo tar zxvf fireflysung-1.3.0.tar.gz -C /usr/share/fonts/truetype/
sudo chown -R root:root /usr/share/fonts/truetype/fireflysung-1.3.0/
sudo fc-cache -f -v

   5. System -> Preferences -> SCIM Input Method Setup
   6. To activate SCIM

Press 'Ctrl + Space'

Q: How to install Desktop Applets (gDesklets)?

   1. Read General Notes
   2. Read How to add extra repositories?
   3.

sudo apt-get install gdesklets
sudo apt-get install gdesklets-data

   4. Read How to refresh GNOME panel?
   5. Applications -> Accessories -> gDesklets

Q: How to install Game (Frozen-Bubble)?

   1. Read General Notes
   2. Read How to add extra repositories?
   3.

sudo apt-get install frozen-bubble

   4. Read How to refresh GNOME panel?
   5. Applications -> Games -> Frozen-Bubble

Q: How to install Basic Compilers (build-essential)?

   1. Read General Notes
   2. Read How to add extra repositories?
   3.

sudo apt-get install build-essential


Commercial Applications

Q: How to install Windows 9X/ME/2000/XP (Win4Lin)?

   1. http://www.win4lin.com

Q: How to install Windows Applications (CrossOver Office)?

   1. http://www.codeweavers.com

Q: How to install Windows Games (Cedega)?

   1. http://www.transgaming.com


Users Administration

Q: How to set/change/enable root user password?

   1. Read General Notes
   2.

sudo passwd root

Q: How to disable root user account?

   1. Read General Notes
   2.

sudo passwd -l root

Q: How to allow root user to login into GNOME?

   1. Read General Notes
   2. Read How to set/change/enable root user password?
   3. System -> Administration -> Login Screen Setup
   4. Login Screen Setup

Security Tab -> Options -> Allow root to login with GDM (Checked)

Q: How to switch to root user in Console mode?

   1. Read General Notes
   2.

sudo -s -H
Password: <specify user password>

Q: How to add/edit/delete system users?

   1. Read General Notes
   2. System -> Administration -> Users and Groups
   3. Users and Groups

Users Tab -> Add User.../Properties/Delete

Q: How to add/edit/delete system groups?

   1. Read General Notes
   2. System -> Administration -> Users and Groups
   3. Users and Groups

Groups Tab -> Add Group.../Properties/Delete

Q: How to automatic login into GNOME (not secure)?

   1. Read General Notes
   2. System -> Administration -> Login Screen Setup
   3. Login Screen Setup

General Tab -> Automatic Login ->
Login a user automatically on first bootup (Checked)
Automatic login username: Select "system_username"

Q: How to allow more sudoers?

   1. Read General Notes
   2.

export EDITOR=gedit && sudo visudo

   3. Append the following line at the end of file

system_username ALL=(ALL) ALL

   4. Save the edited file (sample)

Q: How to use "sudo" without prompt for password (not secure)?

   1. Read General Notes
   2.

export EDITOR=gedit && sudo visudo

   3. Find this line

...
system_username ALL=(ALL) ALL
...

   4. Replace with the following line

system_username ALL=(ALL) NOPASSWD: ALL

   5. Save the edited file (sample)

Q: How to explicitly destroy the "sudo" session?

   1. Read General Notes
   2.

sudo -K

Q: How to change files/folders permissions?

   1. Read General Notes
   2.

Right click on files/folders -> Properties

Permissions Tab -> Read/Write/Execute (Checked the permissions for Owner/Group/Others)

Q: How to change files/folders ownership?

   1. Read General Notes
   2.

sudo chown system_username /location_of_files_or_folders

Q: How to change files/folders group ownership?

   1. Read General Notes
   2.

sudo chgrp system_groupname /location_of_files_or_folders


Hardware

Q: How to install Graphics Driver (NVIDIA)?

   1. Read General Notes
   2. Read How to add extra repositories?
   3.

sudo apt-get install nvidia-glx
sudo apt-get install nvidia-settings
sudo cp /etc/X11/xorg.conf /etc/X11/xorg.conf_backup
sudo nvidia-glx-config enable
sudo gedit /usr/share/applications/NVIDIA-Settings.desktop

   4. Insert the following lines into the new file

[Desktop Entry]
Name=NVIDIA Settings
Comment=NVIDIA Settings
Exec=nvidia-settings
Icon=
Terminal=false
Type=Application
Categories=Application;System;

   5. Save the edited file (sample)
   6. Read How to restart GNOME without rebooting computer?
   7. Applications -> System Tools -> NVIDIA Settings

Q: How to disable NVIDIA graphics logo on GNOME startup?

   1. Read General Notes
   2. Read How to install Graphics Driver (NVIDIA)?
   3.

sudo cp /etc/X11/xorg.conf /etc/X11/xorg.conf_backup
sudo gedit /etc/X11/xorg.conf

   4. Find this section

...
Section "Device"
 Identifier "NVIDIA Corporation NV11 [GeForce2 MX/MX 400]"
 Driver "nvidia"
 BusID "PCI:1:0:0"
...

   5. Add the following line below it

        Option "NoLogo"

   6. Save the edited file (sample)
   7. Read How to restart GNOME without rebooting computer?

Q: How to identify Modem chipset?

   1. Read General Notes
   2. To install Modem chipset identifier
         1. Read How to install Basic Compilers (build-essential)?
         2.

wget -c http://frankandjacq.com/ubuntuguide/scanModem.gz
gunzip -c scanModem.gz > scanModem
chmod +x scanModem
sudo cp scanModem /usr/bin/

   3. To identify Modem chipset

sudo scanModem
gedit Modem/ModemData.txt

Q: How to install Modem Driver (SmartLink)?

   1. Read General Notes
   2. Read How to add extra repositories?
   3.

uname -r (must be 2.6.10-5-386)
wget -c http://frankandjacq.com/ubuntuguide/sl-modem-modules-2.6.10-5-386_2.9.9a-1ubuntu2+2.6.10-34_i386.deb
sudo dpkg -i sl-modem-modules-*.deb
sudo apt-get install sl-modem-daemon

Q: How to configure PalmOS Devices?

   1. Read General Notes
   2.

sudo gedit /etc/udev/rules.d/10-custom.rules

   3. Insert the following line into the new file

BUS="usb", SYSFS{product}="Palm Handheld*", KERNEL="ttyUSB*", NAME{ignore_remove}="pilot", MODE="666"

   4. Save the edited file (sample)
   5. System -> Preferences -> PalmOS Devices
   6. Follow the instructions on screen

Q: How to list partition tables?

   1. Read General Notes
   2.

sudo fdisk -l

Q: How to list filesystem disk space usage?

   1. Read General Notes
   2.

df -T -h

Q: How to list mounted devices?

   1. Read General Notes
   2.

mount

Q: How to list PCI devices?

   1. Read General Notes
   2.

lspci

Q: How to list USB devices?

   1. Read General Notes
   2.

lsusb

Q: How to speed up CD/DVD-ROM?

   1. Read General Notes
   2.

e.g. Assumed that /dev/cdrom is the location of CD/DVD-ROM

   3.

sudo hdparm -d1 /dev/cdrom
sudo cp /etc/hdparm.conf /etc/hdparm.conf_backup
sudo gedit /etc/hdparm.conf

   4. Append the following lines at the end of file

/dev/cdrom {
       dma = on
}

   5. Save the edited file (sample)

Q: How to mount/unmount CD/DVD-ROM manually, and show all hidden and associated files/folders?

   1. Read General Notes
   2.

e.g. Assumed that /media/cdrom0/ is the location of CD/DVD-ROM

   3. To mount CD/DVD-ROM

sudo mount /media/cdrom0/ -o unhide

   4. To unmount CD/DVD-ROM

sudo umount /media/cdrom0/

Q: How to forcefully unmount CD/DVD-ROM manually?

   1. Read General Notes
   2.

e.g. Assumed that /media/cdrom0/ is the location of CD/DVD-ROM

   3.

sudo umount /media/cdrom0/ -l

Q: How to remount /etc/fstab without rebooting?

   1. Read General Notes
   2.

sudo mount -a


CD/DVD Burning

Q: How to blank CD-RW/DVD-RW?

   1. Read General Notes
   2.

e.g. Assumed that /dev/cdrom is the location of CD/DVD-ROM

   3.

sudo umount /dev/cdrom
cdrecord dev=/dev/cdrom blank=fast

Q: How to burn files/folders into CD/DVD?

   1. Read General Notes
   2.

nautilus burn:///

   3. File Browser: CD/DVD Creator

Drag files/folders into window

File Menu -> Write to Disc... -> Write

Q: How to burn Image (ISO) files into CD/DVD?

   1. Read General Notes
   2.

Right click on Image (ISO) file -> Write to Disc... -> Write

Q: How to duplicate CD/DVD?

   1. Read General Notes
   2. Read How to create Image (ISO) files from CD/DVD?
   3. Read How to burn Image (ISO) files into CD/DVD?

Q: How to create Image (ISO) files from CD/DVD?

   1. Read General Notes
   2.

e.g. Assumed that /dev/cdrom is the location of CD/DVD-ROM

   3.

sudo umount /dev/cdrom
dd if=/dev/cdrom of=file.iso bs=1024

Q: How to create Image (ISO) files from folders?

   1. Read General Notes
   2.

mkisofs -o file.iso /location_of_folder/

Q: How to generate MD5 checksum files?

   1. Read General Notes
   2.

md5sum file.iso > file.iso.md5

Q: How to check MD5 checksum of files?

   1. Read General Notes
   2.

e.g. Assumed that file.iso and file.iso.md5 are in the same folder

   3.

md5sum -c file.iso.md5

Q: How to mount/unmount Image (ISO) files without burning?

   1. Read General Notes
   2. To mount Image (ISO) file

sudo mkdir /media/iso
sudo modprobe loop
sudo mount file.iso /media/iso/ -t iso9660 -o loop

   3. To unmount Image (ISO) file

sudo umount /media/iso/

Q: How to set/change the burn speed for CD/DVD Burner?

   1. Read General Notes
   2. Applications -> System Tools -> Configuration Editor
   3. Configuration Editor

/ -> apps -> nautilus-cd-burner -> default_speed (set/change the burn speed)

Q: How to enable burnproof for CD/DVD Burner?

   1. Read General Notes
   2. Applications -> System Tools -> Configuration Editor
   3. Configuration Editor

/ -> apps -> nautilus-cd-burner -> burnproof (Checked)

Q: How to enable overburn for CD/DVD? Burner?

   1. Read General Notes
   2. Applications -> System Tools -> Configuration Editor
   3. Configuration Editor

/ -> apps -> nautilus-cd-burner -> overburn (Checked)


Networking

Q: How to activate/deactivate network connections?

   1. Read General Notes
   2. System -> Administration -> Networking
   3. Network settings

Connections Tab -> Select "Ethernet connection" -> Activate/Deactivate

Q: How to configure network connections?

   1. Read General Notes
   2. System -> Administration -> Networking
   3. Network settings

Connections Tab -> Select "Ethernet connection" -> Properties
Connection -> This device is configured (Checked)
Connection Settings -> Configuration: Select "DHCP/Static IP address"

DNS Tab -> DNS Servers -> Add/Delete

   4. Read How to activate/deactivate network connections?

Q: How to configure dialup connections?

   1. Read General Notes
   2. To configure dialup

sudo pppconfig

   3. To connect dialup

sudo pon provider_name

   4. To disconnect dialup

sudo poff

Q: How to configure broadband connections?

   1. Read General Notes
   2.

sudo pppoeconf

Q: How to change computer name?

   1. Read General Notes
   2. System -> Administration -> Networking
   3. Network settings

General Tab -> Host Settings -> Hostname: Specify the computer name

   4. Save and close all opened applications, Reboot computer

Q: How to change computer descriptions?

   1. Read General Notes
   2. Read How to install Samba Server for files/folders sharing service?
   3.

sudo cp /etc/samba/smb.conf /etc/samba/smb.conf_backup
sudo gedit /etc/samba/smb.conf

   4. Find this line

...
   server string = %h server (Samba, Ubuntu)
...

   5. Replace with the following line

   server string = new_computer_descriptions

   6. Save the edited file (sample)
   7.

sudo testparm
sudo /etc/init.d/samba restart

Q: How to change computer Domain/Workgroup?

   1. Read General Notes
   2. Read How to install Samba Server for files/folders sharing service?
   3.

sudo cp /etc/samba/smb.conf /etc/samba/smb.conf_backup
sudo gedit /etc/samba/smb.conf

   4. Find this line

...
   workgroup = MSHOME
...

   5. Replace with the following line

   workgroup = new_domain_or_workgroup

   6. Save the edited file (sample)
   7.

sudo testparm
sudo /etc/init.d/samba restart

Q: How to assign Hostname to local machine with dynamic IP using free DynDNS service?

   1. Read General Notes
   2. Read How to add extra repositories?
   3.

e.g. Assumed that internet connections have been configured properly
     Register free Dynamic DNS at https://www.dyndns.org
     Automatically refresh IP in DynDNS Database/DNS every hour
     * * * * * means minute hour date month year

   4.

sudo apt-get install ipcheck
sudo gedit /root/dyndns_update.sh

   5. Insert the following lines into the new file

USERNAME=myusername
PASSWORD=mypassword
HOSTNAME=myhostname.dyndns.org

cd /root/
if [ -f /root/ipcheck.dat ]; then
  ipcheck -r checkip.dyndns.org:8245 $USERNAME $PASSWORD $HOSTNAME
else
  ipcheck --makedat -r checkip.dyndns.org:8245 $USERNAME $PASSWORD $HOSTNAME
fi

   6. Save the edited file (sample)
   7.

sudo chmod 700 /root/dyndns_update.sh
sudo sh /root/dyndns_update.sh
export EDITOR=gedit && sudo crontab -e

   8. Append the following line at the end of file

00 * * * * sudo sh /root/dyndns_update.sh

   9. Save the edited file

Q: How to share folders the easy way?

   1. Read General Notes
   2. Read How to install Samba Server for files/folders sharing service?
   3.

Right click on folder -> Share folder

Shared folder -> Share with: Select "SMB"
Share properties -> Name: Specify the share name

Q: How to browse network computers?

   1. Read General Notes
   2.

e.g. Assumed that network connections have been configured properly
     If computers or network folders could not be found, try access them directly
     Read How to access network folders without mounting?

   3. Places -> Network Servers

Q: How to access network folders without mounting?

   1. Read General Notes
   2.

e.g. Assumed that network connections have been configured properly
     Network computer's IP: 192.168.0.1
     Shared folder's name: linux

   3. Applications -> Run Application...
   4. Run Application

smb://192.168.0.1/linux

Q: How to mount/unmount network folders manually, and allow all users to read?

   1. Read General Notes
   2. Read How to install Samba Server for files/folders sharing service?
   3.

e.g. Assumed that network connections have been configured properly
     Network computer's IP: 192.168.0.1
     Network computer's Username: myusername
     Network computer's Password: mypassword
     Shared folder's name: linux
     Local mount folder: /media/sharename

   4. To mount network folder

sudo mkdir /media/sharename
sudo mount //192.168.0.1/linux /media/sharename/ -o username=myusername,password=mypassword

   5. To unmount network folder

sudo umount /media/sharename/

Q: How to mount/unmount network folders manually, and allow all users to read/write?

   1. Read General Notes
   2. Read How to install Samba Server for files/folders sharing service?
   3.

e.g. Assumed that network connections have been configured properly
     Network computer's IP: 192.168.0.1
     Network computer's Username: myusername
     Network computer's Password: mypassword
     Shared folder's name: linux
     Local mount folder: /media/sharename

   4. To mount network folder

sudo mkdir /media/sharename
sudo mount //192.168.0.1/linux /media/sharename/ -o username=myusername,password=mypassword,dmask=777,fmask=777

   5. To unmount network folder

sudo umount /media/sharename/

Q: How to mount network folders on boot-up, and allow all users to read?

   1. Read General Notes
   2. Read How to install Samba Server for files/folders sharing service?
   3.

e.g. Assumed that network connections have been configured properly
     Network computer's IP: 192.168.0.1
     Network computer's Username: myusername
     Network computer's Password: mypassword
     Shared folder's name: linux
     Local mount folder: /media/sharename

   4.

sudo mkdir /media/sharename
sudo gedit /root/.smbcredentials

   5. Insert the following lines into the new file

username=myusername
password=mypassword

   6. Save the edited file (sample)
   7.

sudo chmod 700 /root/.smbcredentials
sudo cp /etc/fstab /etc/fstab_backup
sudo gedit /etc/fstab

   8. Append the following line at the end of file

//192.168.0.1/linux /media/sharename smbfs credentials=/root/.smbcredentials 0 0

   9. Save the edited file (sample)
  10. Read How to remount /etc/fstab without rebooting?

Q: How to mount network folders on boot-up, and allow all users to read/write?

   1. Read General Notes
   2. Read How to install Samba Server for files/folders sharing service?
   3.

e.g. Assumed that network connections have been configured properly
     Network computer's IP: 192.168.0.1
     Network computer's Username: myusername
     Network computer's Password: mypassword
     Shared folder's name: linux
     Local mount folder: /media/sharename

   4.

sudo mkdir /media/sharename
sudo gedit /root/.smbcredentials

   5. Insert the following lines into the new file

username=myusername
password=mypassword

   6. Save the edited file (sample)
   7.

sudo chmod 700 /root/.smbcredentials
sudo cp /etc/fstab /etc/fstab_backup
sudo gedit /etc/fstab

   8. Append the following line at the end of file

//192.168.0.1/linux /media/sharename smbfs credentials=/root/.smbcredentials,dmask=777,fmask=777 0 0

   9. Save the edited file (sample)
  10. Read How to remount /etc/fstab without rebooting?


Remote Desktop

Q: How to configure remote desktop (not secure)?

   1. Read General Notes
   2.

Warning! Remote Desktop will only work if there's a GNOME login session
         Leaving computer with an unattended GNOME login session is not secure
         Use (System -> Lock Screen) and off the monitor when computer is left unattended

   3. System -> Preferences -> Remote Desktop
   4. Remote Desktop Preferences

Sharing ->
Allow other users to view your desktop (Checked)
Allow other users to control your desktop (Checked)

Security ->
Ask you for confirmation (Un-Checked)
Require the user to enter this password: (Checked)
Password: Specify the password

Q: How to connect into remote Ubuntu desktop?

   1. Read General Notes
   2.

e.g. Assumed that remote Ubuntu machine have configured Remote Desktop
     Read How to configure remote desktop (not secure)?
     Remote Ubuntu machine: 192.168.0.1

   3.

vncviewer -fullscreen 192.168.0.1:0

   4. To quit vncviewer

Press 'F8' -> Quit viewer

Q: How to connect into remote Ubuntu desktop via Windows machine?

   1. Read General Notes
   2.

e.g. Assumed that remote Ubuntu machine have configured Remote Desktop
     Read How to configure remote desktop (not secure)?
     Remote Ubuntu machine: 192.168.0.1

   3. Download VNC Viewer: Here


Windows

Q: How to mount/unmount Windows partitions (NTFS) manually, and allow all users to read only?

   1. Read General Notes
   2. Read How to list partition tables?
   3.

e.g. Assumed that /dev/hda1 is the location of Windows partition (NTFS)
     Local mount folder: /media/windows

   4. To mount Windows partition

sudo mkdir /media/windows
sudo mount /dev/hda1 /media/windows/ -t ntfs -o nls=utf8,umask=0222

   5. To unmount Windows partition

sudo umount /media/windows/

Q: How to mount/unmount Windows partitions (FAT) manually, and allow all users to read/write?

   1. Read General Notes
   2. Read How to list partition tables?
   3.

e.g. Assumed that /dev/hda1 is the location of Windows partition (FAT)
     Local mount folder: /media/windows

   4. To mount Windows partition

sudo mkdir /media/windows
sudo mount /dev/hda1 /media/windows/ -t vfat -o iocharset=utf8,umask=000

   5. To unmount Windows partition

sudo umount /media/windows/

Q: How to mount Windows partitions (NTFS) on boot-up, and allow all users to read only?

   1. Read General Notes
   2. Read How to list partition tables?
   3.

e.g. Assumed that /dev/hda1 is the location of Windows partition (NTFS)
     Local mount folder: /media/windows

   4.

sudo mkdir /media/windows
sudo cp /etc/fstab /etc/fstab_backup
sudo gedit /etc/fstab

   5. Append the following line at the end of file

/dev/hda1 /media/windows ntfs nls=utf8,umask=0222 0 0

   6. Save the edited file (sample)
   7. Read How to remount /etc/fstab without rebooting?

Q: How to mount Windows partitions (FAT) on boot-up, and allow all users to read/write?

   1. Read General Notes
   2. Read How to list partition tables?
   3.

e.g. Assumed that /dev/hda1 is the location of Windows partition (FAT)
     Local mount folder: /media/windows

   4.

sudo mkdir /media/windows
sudo cp /etc/fstab /etc/fstab_backup
sudo gedit /etc/fstab

   5. Append the following line at the end of file

/dev/hda1 /media/windows vfat iocharset=utf8,umask=000 0 0

   6. Save the edited file (sample)
   7. Read How to remount /etc/fstab without rebooting?


Security

Q: What are the basic things I need to know about securing my Ubuntu?

   1. Read General Notes
   2. Ensure hard drive is first in BIOS boot-up sequence
         1. To prevent trespassers from using Linux Installation CD which allows them to gain root user access
         2. To prevent trespassers from using Linux Live CD (e.g. UBUNTU/KNOPPIX/MEPIS) which allows them to destroy/browse/share the entire hard drive
         3. To prevent trespassers from installing another Operating System
   3. Ensure a password is set for BIOS
         1. To prevent trespassers from changing the BIOS boot-up sequence
   4. Ensure computer is located at a secured place
         1. To prevent trespassers from removing computer's hard drive which allows them to destroy/browse/share the entire hard drive from a different computer
         2. To prevent trespassers from removing computer's on-board battery which resets the BIOS password
   5. Ensure passwords used on the system cannot be easily guessed
         1. To prevent trespassers from cracking password file using brute force attacks (e.g. John the Ripper)
         2. Create password with minimum length of 8 characters
         3. Create password with mixture of characters/numbers, and upper/lower case
   6. Ensure interactive editing control for GRUB menu is disabled
         1. To prevent trespassers from modifying kernel boot-up arguments which allows them to have root user access
         2. Read How to disable all interactive editing control for GRUB menu?
   7. Ensure history listing is disabled in Console mode
         1. To prevent trespassers from seeing previously issued commands
         2. Read How to disable history listing in Console mode?
   8. Ensure Ctrl+Alt+Del is disabled in Console mode
         1. To prevent trespassers from restarting the system without permission in Console mode
         2. Read How to disable Ctrl+Alt+Del from restarting computer in Console mode?
   9. Ensure interactive option is set for remove, copy and move of files/folders in Console mode
         1. To prevent accidental removal/overwritten of files/folders
         2. Read How to enable prompt before removal/overwritten of files/folders in Console mode?
  10. For day to day usage, login as a normal user
         1. To prevent accidental deletion/modification of system files/folders
         2. Read How to add/edit/delete system users?
  11. Disable root user account, use "sudo" instead
         1. To reduce the amount of time spent with root privileges, and thus the risk of inadvertently executing a command as root
         2. "sudo" provides a more useful audit trail (/var/log/auth.log)
         3. Read How to disable root user account?
  12. Install a Firewall
         1. A firewall does not guarantee security but it is in most environments the first line of defense against network based attacks
         2. Read How to install Firewall (Firestarter)?
  13. Perform vulnerability test
         1. Nessus is a great tool designed to automate the testing and discovery of known security problems
         2. Read How to install Vulnerability Scanner (Nessus)?

Q: How to disable all interactive editing control for GRUB menu?

   1. Read General Notes
   2.

grub

grub> md5crypt
Password: ****** (ubuntu)
Encrypted: $1$ZWnke0$1fzDBVjUcT1Mpdd4u/T961 (encrypted password)
grub> quit

sudo cp /boot/grub/menu.lst /boot/grub/menu.lst_backup
sudo gedit /boot/grub/menu.lst

   3. Find this section

...
## password ['--md5'] passwd
# If used in the first section of a menu file, disable all interactive editing
# control (menu entry editor and command-line) and entries protected by the
# command 'lock'
# e.g. password topsecret
# password --md5 $1$gLhU0/$aW78kHK1QfV3P2b2znUoe/
# password topsecret
...

   4. Add the following line below it

password --md5 $1$ZWnke0$1fzDBVjUcT1Mpdd4u/T961 (encrypted password above)

   5. Find this section

...
title Ubuntu, kernel 2.6.10-5-386 (recovery mode)
root (hd0,1)
kernel /boot/vmlinuz-2.6.10-5-386 root=/dev/hda2 ro single
initrd /boot/initrd.img-2.6.10-5-386
savedefault
boot
...

   6. Replace with the following lines

#title Ubuntu, kernel 2.6.10-5-386 (recovery mode)
#root (hd0,1)
#kernel /boot/vmlinuz-2.6.10-5-386 root=/dev/hda2 ro single
#initrd /boot/initrd.img-2.6.10-5-386
#savedefault
#boot

   7. Save the edited file (sample)

Q: How to disable history listing in Console mode?

   1. Read General Notes
   2.

rm -f $HOME/.bash_history
touch $HOME/.bash_history
chmod 000 $HOME/.bash_history

Q: How to disable Ctrl+Alt+Del from restarting computer in Console mode?

   1. Read General Notes
   2.

sudo cp /etc/inittab /etc/inittab_backup
sudo gedit /etc/inittab

   3. Find this line

...
ca:12345:ctrlaltdel:/sbin/shutdown -t1 -a -r now
...

   4. Replace with the following line

#ca:12345:ctrlaltdel:/sbin/shutdown -t1 -a -r now

   5. Save the edited file (sample)
   6.

sudo telinit q

Q: How to enable prompt before removal/overwritten of files/folders in Console mode?

   1. Read General Notes
   2.

sudo cp /etc/bash.bashrc /etc/bash.bashrc_backup
sudo gedit /etc/bash.bashrc

   3. Append the following lines at the end of file

alias rm='rm -i'
alias cp='cp -i'
alias mv='mv -i'

   4. Save the edited file (sample)


Rescue Mode

Q: How to gain root user access without login?

   1. Read General Notes
   2. Easiest method (will not work if GRUB menu password is set)
         1. Boot-up computer
         2. If GRUB menu is hidden, press 'Esc' to enter the GRUB menu
         3. Select

Ubuntu, kernel 2.6.10-5-386 (recovery mode)

         4. Press 'Enter' to boot
   3. Other methods
         1. Read How to modify kernel boot-up arguments, to gain root user access?
         2. Read How to use Ubuntu Installation CD, to gain root user access?

Q: How to modify kernel boot-up arguments, to gain root user access?

   1. Read General Notes
   2. Boot-up computer
   3. If GRUB menu is hidden, press 'Esc' to enter the GRUB menu
   4. If GRUB password is set, press 'p' to unlock the GRUB menu
   5. Select

Ubuntu, kernel 2.6.10-5-386

   6. Press 'e' to edit the commands before booting
   7. Select

kernel /boot/vmlinuz-2.6.10-5-386 root=/dev/hda2 ro quiet splash

   8. Press 'e' to edit the selected command in the boot sequence
   9. Add "rw init=/bin/bash" to the end of the arguments

grub edit> kernel /boot/vmlinuz-2.6.10-5-386 root=/dev/hda2 ro quiet splash rw init=/bin/bash

  10. Press 'b' to boot

Q: How to use Ubuntu Installation CD, to gain root user access?

   1. Read General Notes
   2. Boot-up computer into Ubuntu Installation CD
   3. At "boot:" prompt, add "rescue" to the argument

boot: rescue

   4. Follow the instructions on screen

Q: How to change root user/main user password if forgotten?

   1. Read General Notes
   2. Read How to gain root user access without login?
   3. To change root user password

# passwd root

   4. To change main user password

# passwd system_main_username

Q: How to change GRUB menu password if forgotten?

   1. Read General Notes
   2.

grub

grub> md5crypt
Password: ****** (ubuntu)
Encrypted: $1$ZWnke0$1fzDBVjUcT1Mpdd4u/T961 (encrypted password)
grub> quit

sudo cp /boot/grub/menu.lst /boot/grub/menu.lst_backup
sudo gedit /boot/grub/menu.lst

   3. Find this line

...
password --md5 $1$gLhU0/$aW78kHK1QfV3P2b2znUoe/
...

   4. Replace with the following line

password --md5 $1$ZWnke0$1fzDBVjUcT1Mpdd4u/T961 (encrypted password above)

   5. Save the edited file (sample)

Q: How to restore GRUB menu after Windows installation?

   1. Read General Notes
   2. Read How to use Ubuntu Installation CD, to gain root user access?
   3.

e.g. Assumed that /dev/hda is the location of /boot partition

   4.

# grub-install /dev/hda

Q: How to add Windows entry into GRUB menu?

   1. Read General Notes
   2. Read How to list partition tables?
   3.

e.g. Assumed that /dev/hda1 is the location of Windows partition

   4.

sudo cp /boot/grub/menu.lst /boot/grub/menu.lst_backup
sudo gedit /boot/grub/menu.lst

   5. Append the following lines at the end of file

title Microsoft Windows
root (hd0,0)
savedefault
makeactive
chainloader +1

   6. Save the edited file (sample)

Q: How to read Linux partitions (ext2, ext3) in Windows machine?

   1. Read General Notes
   2. Download Explore2fs: Here


Tips & Tricks

Q: How to restart GNOME without rebooting computer?

   1. Read General Notes
   2. Save and close all opened applications
   3.

Press 'Ctrl + Alt + Backspace'

      or

sudo /etc/init.d/gdm restart

Q: How to turn on Num Lock on GNOME startup?

   1. Read General Notes
   2. Read How to add extra repositories?
   3.

sudo apt-get install numlockx
sudo cp /etc/X11/gdm/Init/Default /etc/X11/gdm/Init/Default_backup
sudo gedit /etc/X11/gdm/Init/Default

   4. Find this line

...
exit 0

   5. Add the following lines above it

if [ -x /usr/bin/numlockx ]; then
  /usr/bin/numlockx on
fi

   6. Save the edited file (sample)
   7. Read How to restart GNOME without rebooting computer?

Q: How to run programs on startup when login into GNOME?

   1. Read General Notes
   2. System -> Preferences -> Sessions
   3. Sessions

Startup Programs Tab -> Add/Edit/Delete

Q: How to switch to Console mode in GNOME?

   1. Read General Notes
   2. To switch to Console mode

Press 'Ctrl + Alt + F1' (F2 - F6)

   3. To switch back to GNOME mode

Press 'Ctrl + Alt + F7'

Q: How to disable Ctrl+Alt+Backspace from restarting X in GNOME?

   1. Read General Notes
   2.

sudo cp /etc/X11/xorg.conf /etc/X11/xorg.conf_backup
sudo gedit /etc/X11/xorg.conf

   3. Append the following lines at the end of file

Section "ServerFlags"
 Option "DontZap" "yes"
EndSection

   4. Save the edited file (sample)
   5. Read How to restart GNOME without rebooting computer?

Q: How to enable Ctrl+Alt+Del to open System Monitor in GNOME?

   1. Read General Notes
   2.

gconftool-2 -t str --set /apps/metacity/global_keybindings/run_command_9 "<Control><Alt>Delete"
gconftool-2 -t str --set /apps/metacity/keybinding_commands/command_9 "gnome-system-monitor"

Q: How to refresh GNOME desktop?

   1. Read General Notes
   2.

killall nautilus

Q: How to refresh GNOME panel?

   1. Read General Notes
   2.

killall gnome-panel

Q: How to open each folder in the same window in Nautilus?

   1. Read General Notes
   2. Applications -> System Tools -> Configuration Editor
   3. Configuration Editor

/ -> apps -> nautilus -> preferences -> always_use_browser (Checked)

Q: How to show all hidden files/folders in Nautilus?

   1. Read General Notes
   2. Places -> Home Folder
   3. To temporary show all hidden files/folders in Nautilus

Press 'Ctrl + H'

   4. To permanently show all hidden files/folders in Nautilus

Edit Menu -> Preferences

Views Tab -> Default View -> Show hidden and backup files (Checked)

Q: How to browse files/folders as root user in Nautilus?

   1. Read General Notes
   2. To install File Browser (Root)
         1.

sudo gedit /usr/share/applications/Nautilus-root.desktop

         2. Insert the following lines into the new file

[Desktop Entry]
Name=File Browser (Root)
Comment=Browse the filesystem with the file manager
Exec=gksudo "nautilus --browser %U"
Icon=file-manager
Terminal=false
Type=Application
Categories=Application;System;

         3. Save the edited file (sample)
         4. Read How to refresh GNOME panel?
   3. To browse files/folders as root user in Nautilus
         1. Applications -> System Tools -> File Browser (Root)

Q: How to show Desktop Icons (Computer, Home, Trash)?

   1. Read General Notes
   2. Applications -> System Tools -> Configuration Editor
   3. Configuration Editor

/ -> apps -> nautilus -> desktop ->
computer_icon_visible (Checked)
home_icon_visible (Checked)
trash_icon_visible (Checked)

Q: How to change default file type "Open with" program?

   1. Read General Notes
   2.

Right click on file -> Properties

Open With Tab -> Add
Select "Open with" program

Select "Open with" program (Checked)

Q: How to change preferred email client to Mozilla Thunderbird?

   1. Read General Notes
   2. Read How to install Email Client (Mozilla Thunderbird)?
   3. System -> Preferences -> Preferred Applications
   4. Preferred Applications

Mail Reader Tab -> Default Mail Reader -> Command: mozilla-thunderbird %s

Q: How to open files as root user via right click?

   1. Read General Notes
   2.

gedit $HOME/.gnome2/nautilus-scripts/Open\ as\ root

   3. Insert the following lines into the new file

for uri in $NAUTILUS_SCRIPT_SELECTED_URIS; do
 gnome-sudo "gnome-open $uri" &
done

   4. Save the edited file (sample)
   5.

chmod +x $HOME/.gnome2/nautilus-scripts/Open\ as\ root

   6.

Right click on file -> Scripts -> Open as root

Q: How to disable beep sound in Terminal mode?

   1. Read General Notes
   2. Applications -> System Tools -> Terminal
   3. Terminal

Edit Menu -> Current Profile...

General Tab -> General -> Terminal bell (Un-Checked)

Q: How to load Web site faster in Mozilla Firefox?

   1. Read General Notes
   2. Applications -> Internet -> Firefox Web Browser
   3. Mozilla Firefox

Address Bar -> about:config

Filter: ->
network.dns.disableIPv6 -> true
network.http.pipelining -> true
network.http.pipelining.maxrequests -> 8
network.http.proxy.pipelining -> true

   4. Restart Mozilla Firefox

Q: How to disable beep sound for link find function in Mozilla Firefox?

   1. Read General Notes
   2. Applications -> Internet -> Firefox Web Browser
   3. Mozilla Firefox

Address Bar -> about:config

Filter: -> accessibility.typeaheadfind.enablesound -> false

   4. Restart Mozilla Firefox

Q: How to restore the original icons for Mozilla Firefox?

   1. Read General Notes
   2.

wget -c http://frankandjacq.com/ubuntuguide/mozilla-firefox.png
wget -c http://frankandjacq.com/ubuntuguide/document.png
chmod 644 mozilla-firefox.png
chmod 644 document.png
sudo dpkg-divert --rename /usr/share/pixmaps/mozilla-firefox.png
sudo dpkg-divert --rename /usr/share/pixmaps/mozilla-firefox.xpm
sudo dpkg-divert --rename /usr/lib/mozilla-firefox/icons/default.xpm
sudo dpkg-divert --rename /usr/lib/mozilla-firefox/icons/document.png
sudo dpkg-divert --rename /usr/lib/mozilla-firefox/chrome/icons/default/default.xpm
sudo cp mozilla-firefox.png /usr/share/pixmaps/mozilla-firefox.png
sudo cp mozilla-firefox.png /usr/share/pixmaps/mozilla-firefox.xpm
sudo cp mozilla-firefox.png /usr/lib/mozilla-firefox/icons/default.xpm
sudo cp document.png /usr/lib/mozilla-firefox/icons/document.png
sudo cp mozilla-firefox.png /usr/lib/mozilla-firefox/chrome/icons/default/default.xpm

   3. Read How to restart GNOME without rebooting computer?

Q: How to restore the original icons for Mozilla Thunderbird?

   1. Read General Notes
   2.

wget -c http://frankandjacq.com/ubuntuguide/mozilla-thunderbird.xpm
chmod 644 mozilla-thunderbird.xpm
sudo dpkg-divert --rename /usr/share/pixmaps/mozilla-thunderbird.xpm
sudo dpkg-divert --rename /usr/share/pixmaps/mozilla-thunderbird-menu.xpm
sudo dpkg-divert --rename /usr/share/pixmaps/mozilla-thunderbird-pm-menu.xpm
sudo dpkg-divert --rename /usr/lib/mozilla-thunderbird/chrome/icons/default/mozilla-thunderbird.xpm
sudo dpkg-divert --rename /usr/lib/mozilla-thunderbird/chrome/icons/default/messengerWindow16.xpm
sudo dpkg-divert --rename /usr/lib/mozilla-thunderbird/chrome/icons/default/messengerWindow.xpm
sudo dpkg-divert --rename /usr/lib/mozilla-thunderbird/chrome/icons/default/default.xpm
sudo cp mozilla-thunderbird.xpm /usr/share/pixmaps/mozilla-thunderbird.xpm
sudo cp mozilla-thunderbird.xpm /usr/share/pixmaps/mozilla-thunderbird-menu.xpm
sudo cp mozilla-thunderbird.xpm /usr/share/pixmaps/mozilla-thunderbird-pm-menu.xpm
sudo cp mozilla-thunderbird.xpm /usr/lib/mozilla-thunderbird/chrome/icons/default/mozilla-thunderbird.xpm
sudo cp mozilla-thunderbird.xpm /usr/lib/mozilla-thunderbird/chrome/icons/default/messengerWindow16.xpm
sudo cp mozilla-thunderbird.xpm /usr/lib/mozilla-thunderbird/chrome/icons/default/messengerWindow.xpm
sudo cp mozilla-thunderbird.xpm /usr/lib/mozilla-thunderbird/chrome/icons/default/default.xpm

   3. Read How to restart GNOME without rebooting computer?

Q: How to apt-get the easy way (Synaptic)?

   1. Read General Notes
   2. System -> Administration -> Synaptic Package Manager
   3. Synaptic Package Manager
         1. To refresh the list of known packages (equivalent to apt-get update)

Edit Menu -> Reload Package Information

         2. To install all possible upgrades (equivalent to apt-get upgrade)

Edit Menu -> Mark All Upgrades... -> Default Upgrade
Edit Menu -> Apply Marked Changes

         3. To search for a package (equivalent to apt-cache search package_name)

Edit Menu -> Search... Specify the package name

         4. To install the selected package (equivalent to apt-get install package_name)

Select "package_name"

Package Menu -> Mark for Installation
Edit Menu -> Apply Marked Changes

         5. To remove installed package (equivalent to apt-get remove package_name)

Select "package_name"

Package Menu -> Mark for Removal
Edit Menu -> Apply Marked Changes

Q: How to install/uninstall .deb files?

   1. Read General Notes
   2. To install .deb file

sudo dpkg -i package_file.deb

   3. To uninstall .deb file

sudo dpkg -r package_name

Q: How to convert .rpm files to .deb files?

   1. Read General Notes
   2.

sudo alien package_file.rpm

Q: How to rename all files in directory at once?

   1. Read General Notes
   2. To install "mvb" file name renamer

wget -c http://frankandjacq.com/ubuntuguide/mvb_1.6.tgz
sudo tar zxvf mvb_1.6.tgz -C /usr/share/
sudo chown -R root:root /usr/share/mvb_1.6/
sudo ln -fs /usr/share/mvb_1.6/mvb /usr/bin/mvb

   3. To rename all files in directory at once

mvb NEW_NAME

Q: How to manipulate all image files in directory at once?

   1. Read General Notes
   2. To install bash batch image processing script
         1. Read How to add extra repositories?
         2.

sudo apt-get install imagemagick
wget -c http://frankandjacq.com/ubuntuguide/bbips.0.3.2.sh
sudo cp bbips.0.3.2.sh /usr/bin/bbips
sudo chmod 755 /usr/bin/bbips

   3. To manipulate all image files in directory at once

bbips

Q: How to set System-wide Environment Variables?

   1. Read General Notes
   2.

sudo cp /etc/bash.bashrc /etc/bash.bashrc_backup
sudo gedit /etc/bash.bashrc

   3. Append the System-wide Environment Variables at the end of file
   4. Save the edited file

Q: How to save "man" outputs into files?

   1. Read General Notes
   2.

man command | col -b > file.txt

Q: How to hide GRUB menu on boot-up?

   1. Read General Notes
   2.

sudo cp /boot/grub/menu.lst /boot/grub/menu.lst_backup
sudo gedit /boot/grub/menu.lst

   3. Find this line

...
#hiddenmenu
...

   4. Replace with the following line

hiddenmenu

   5. Save the edited file (sample)

Q: How to change the timeout seconds for GRUB menu on boot-up?

   1. Read General Notes
   2.

sudo cp /boot/grub/menu.lst /boot/grub/menu.lst_backup
sudo gedit /boot/grub/menu.lst

   3. Find this line

...
timeout 3
...

   4. Replace with the following line

timeout X_seconds

   5. Save the edited file (sample)

Q: How to change default Operating System boot-up for GRUB menu?

   1. Read General Notes
   2.

sudo cp /boot/grub/menu.lst /boot/grub/menu.lst_backup
sudo gedit /boot/grub/menu.lst

   3. Find this line

...
default 0
...

   4. Replace with the following line

default X_sequence

   5. Save the edited file (sample)

Q: How to display Splash Image for GRUB menu on boot-up?

   1. Read General Notes
   2.

e.g. Assumed that hd0,1 is the location of Ubuntu boot partition

   3.

wget -c http://frankandjacq.com/ubuntuguide/ubuntu.xpm.gz
chmod 644 ubuntu.xpm.gz
sudo mkdir /boot/grub/images
sudo cp ubuntu.xpm.gz /boot/grub/images/
sudo cp /boot/grub/menu.lst /boot/grub/menu.lst_backup
sudo gedit /boot/grub/menu.lst

   4. Find this section

# menu.lst - See: grub(8), info grub, update-grub(8)
# grub-install(8), grub-floppy(8),
# grub-md5-crypt, /usr/share/doc/grub
# and /usr/share/doc/grub-doc/.
...

   5. Add the following line below it

splashimage (hd0,1)/boot/grub/images/ubuntu.xpm.gz

   6. Save the edited file (sample)

Q: How to convert Wallpaper to Splash Image for GRUB menu?

   1. Read General Notes
   2.

e.g. Assumed that wallpaper.png is the Wallpaper to be converted to Splash Image
     splashimage.xpm.gz is the Splash Image for GRUB menu

   3.

convert -resize 640x480 -colors 14 wallpaper.png splashimage.xpm && gzip splashimage.xpm

   4. Read How to display Splash Image for GRUB menu on boot-up? (use splashimage.xpm.gz instead of ubuntu.xpm.gz)

Q: How to temporary skip boot-up services?

   1. Read General Notes
   2.

Press 'Ctrl + C'

Q: How to permanently disable/enable boot-up services?

   1. Read General Notes
   2. Read How to install Boot-Up Manager (BUM)?

Q: How to clean /tmp/ folder contents on shutdown?

   1. Read General Notes
   2.

sudo cp /etc/init.d/sysklogd /etc/init.d/sysklogd_backup
sudo gedit /etc/init.d/sysklogd

   3. Find this section

...
  stop)
    log_begin_msg "Stopping system log daemon..."
    start-stop-daemon --stop --quiet --oknodo --exec $binpath --pidfile $pidfile
    log_end_msg $?
...

   4. Add the following line below it

    rm -fr /tmp/* /tmp/.??*

   5. Save the edited file (sample)

Q: How to scroll up and down to view previous outputs in Console mode?

   1. Read General Notes
   2. To scroll up to view previously outputs

Press 'Shift + Page Up'

   3. To scroll down to view previously outputs

Press 'Shift + Page Down'


AntiVirus Server

Q: How to install ClamAV AntiVirus Server?

   1. Read General Notes
   2. Read How to add extra repositories?
   3.

sudo apt-get install clamav

Q: How to manually update virus databases?

   1. Read General Notes
   2. Read How to install ClamAV AntiVirus Server?
   3.

sudo freshclam

Q: How to manually scan files/folders for viruses?

   1. Read General Notes
   2. Read How to install ClamAV AntiVirus Server?
   3.

sudo clamscan -r /location_of_files_or_folders

Q: How to automatically scan files/folders for viruses?

   1. Read General Notes
   2. Read How to install ClamAV AntiVirus Server?
   3.

e.g. Automatically scan files/folders for viruses at midnight everyday
     * * * * * means minute hour date month year

   4.

export EDITOR=gedit && sudo crontab -e

   5. Append the following line at the end of file

00 00 * * * sudo clamscan -r /location_of_files_or_folders

   6. Save the edited file


Samba Server

Q: How to install Samba Server for files/folders sharing service?

   1. Read General Notes
   2. Read How to add extra repositories?
   3.

sudo apt-get install samba
sudo apt-get install smbfs

Q: How to add/edit/delete network users?

   1. Read General Notes
   2. Read How to install Samba Server for files/folders sharing service?
   3. To add network user
         1. Read How to add/edit/delete system users?
         2.

smbpasswd -a system_username
sudo gedit /etc/samba/smbusers

         3. Insert the following line into the new file

system_username = "network username"

         4. Save the edited file (sample)
   4. To edit network user

sudo smbpasswd -a system_username

   5. To delete network user

sudo smbpasswd -x system_username

Q: How to share home folders with read only permission (Authentication=Yes)?

   1. Read General Notes
   2. Read How to install Samba Server for files/folders sharing service?
   3.

sudo cp /etc/samba/smb.conf /etc/samba/smb.conf_backup
sudo gedit /etc/samba/smb.conf

   4. Find this line

...
; security = user
...

   5. Replace with the following lines

   security = user
   username map = /etc/samba/smbusers

   6. Save the edited file (sample)
   7. Read How to add/edit/delete network users?
   8.

sudo testparm
sudo /etc/init.d/samba restart

Q: How to share home folders with read/write permissions (Authentication=Yes)?

   1. Read General Notes
   2. Read How to install Samba Server for files/folders sharing service?
   3.

sudo cp /etc/samba/smb.conf /etc/samba/smb.conf_backup
sudo gedit /etc/samba/smb.conf

   4. Find this line

...
; security = user
...

   5. Replace with the following lines

   security = user
   username map = /etc/samba/smbusers

   6. Find this section

...
# By default, the home directories are exported read-only. Change next
# parameter to 'yes' if you want to be able to write to them.
   writable = no
...

   7. Replace with the following lines

# By default, the home directories are exported read-only. Change next
# parameter to 'yes' if you want to be able to write to them.
   writable = yes

   8. Save the edited file (sample)
   9. Read How to add/edit/delete network users?
  10.

sudo testparm
sudo /etc/init.d/samba restart

Q: How to share group folders with read only permission (Authentication=Yes)?

   1. Read General Notes
   2. Read How to install Samba Server for files/folders sharing service?
   3.

sudo mkdir /home/group
sudo chmod 777 /home/group/
sudo cp /etc/samba/smb.conf /etc/samba/smb.conf_backup
sudo gedit /etc/samba/smb.conf

   4. Find this line

...
; security = user
...

   5. Replace with the following lines

   security = user
   username map = /etc/samba/smbusers

   6. Append the following lines at the end of file

[Group]
   comment = Group Folder
   path = /home/group
   public = yes
   writable = no
   valid users = system_username1 system_username2
   create mask = 0700
   directory mask = 0700
   force user = nobody
   force group = nogroup

   7. Save the edited file (sample)
   8. Read How to add/edit/delete network users?
   9.

sudo testparm
sudo /etc/init.d/samba restart

Q: How to share group folders with read/write permissions (Authentication=Yes)?

   1. Read General Notes
   2. Read How to install Samba Server for files/folders sharing service?
   3.

sudo mkdir /home/group
sudo chmod 777 /home/group/
sudo cp /etc/samba/smb.conf /etc/samba/smb.conf_backup
sudo gedit /etc/samba/smb.conf

   4. Find this line

...
; security = user
...

   5. Replace with the following lines

   security = user
   username map = /etc/samba/smbusers

   6. Append the following lines at the end of file

[Group]
   comment = Group Folder
   path = /home/group
   public = yes
   writable = yes
   valid users = system_username1 system_username2
   create mask = 0700
   directory mask = 0700
   force user = nobody
   force group = nogroup

   7. Save the edited file (sample)
   8. Read How to add/edit/delete network users?
   9.

sudo testparm
sudo /etc/init.d/samba restart

Q: How to share public folders with read only permission (Authentication=Yes)?

   1. Read General Notes
   2. Read How to install Samba Server for files/folders sharing service?
   3.

sudo mkdir /home/public
sudo chmod 777 /home/public/
sudo cp /etc/samba/smb.conf /etc/samba/smb.conf_backup
sudo gedit /etc/samba/smb.conf

   4. Find this line

...
; security = user
...

   5. Replace with the following lines

   security = user
   username map = /etc/samba/smbusers

   6. Append the following lines at the end of file

[public]
   comment = Public Folder
   path = /home/public
   public = yes
   writable = no
   create mask = 0777
   directory mask = 0777
   force user = nobody
   force group = nogroup

   7. Save the edited file (sample)
   8. Read How to add/edit/delete network users?
   9.

sudo testparm
sudo /etc/init.d/samba restart

Q: How to share public folders with read/write permissions (Authentication=Yes)?

   1. Read General Notes
   2. Read How to install Samba Server for files/folders sharing service?
   3.

sudo mkdir /home/public
sudo chmod 777 /home/public/
sudo cp /etc/samba/smb.conf /etc/samba/smb.conf_backup
sudo gedit /etc/samba/smb.conf

   4. Find this line

...
; security = user
...

   5. Replace with the following lines

   security = user
   username map = /etc/samba/smbusers

   6. Append the following lines at the end of file

[public]
   comment = Public Folder
   path = /home/public
   public = yes
   writable = yes
   create mask = 0777
   directory mask = 0777
   force user = nobody
   force group = nogroup

   7. Save the edited file (sample)
   8. Read How to add/edit/delete network users?
   9.

sudo testparm
sudo /etc/init.d/samba restart

Q: How to share public folders with read only permission (Authentication=No)?

   1. Read General Notes
   2. Read How to install Samba Server for files/folders sharing service?
   3.

sudo mkdir /home/public
sudo chmod 777 /home/public/
sudo cp /etc/samba/smb.conf /etc/samba/smb.conf_backup
sudo gedit /etc/samba/smb.conf

   4. Find this line

...
; security = user
...

   5. Replace with the following line

   security = share

   6. Append the following lines at the end of file

[public]
   comment = Public Folder
   path = /home/public
   public = yes
   writable = no
   create mask = 0777
   directory mask = 0777
   force user = nobody
   force group = nogroup

   7. Save the edited file (sample)
   8.

sudo testparm
sudo /etc/init.d/samba restart

Q: How to share public folders with read/write permissions (Authentication=No)?

   1. Read General Notes
   2. Read How to install Samba Server for files/folders sharing service?
   3.

sudo mkdir /home/public
sudo chmod 777 /home/public/
sudo cp /etc/samba/smb.conf /etc/samba/smb.conf_backup
sudo gedit /etc/samba/smb.conf

   4. Find this line

...
; security = user
...

   5. Replace with the following line

   security = share

   6. Append the following lines at the end of file

[public]
   comment = Public Folder
   path = /home/public
   public = yes
   writable = yes
   create mask = 0777
   directory mask = 0777
   force user = nobody
   force group = nogroup

   7. Save the edited file (sample)
   8.

sudo testparm
sudo /etc/init.d/samba restart


SSH Server

Q: How to install SSH Server for remote administration service?

   1. Read General Notes
   2. Read How to add extra repositories?
   3.

sudo apt-get install ssh

Q: How to SSH into remote Ubuntu machine?

   1. Read General Notes
   2.

e.g. Assumed that remote Ubuntu machine have installed SSH Server service
     Read How to install SSH Server for remote administration service?
     Remote Ubuntu machine: 192.168.0.1

   3.

ssh username@192.168.0.1

Q: How to copy files/folders from remote Ubuntu machine into local machine (scp)?

   1. Read General Notes
   2.

e.g. Assumed that remote Ubuntu machine have installed SSH Server service
     Read How to install SSH Server for remote administration service?
     Remote Ubuntu machine: 192.168.0.1
     Remote files/folders location: /home/username/remotefile.txt
     Local machine save location: . (current directory)

   3.

scp -r username@192.168.0.1:/home/username/remotefile.txt .

Q: How to copy files/folders from local machine into remote Ubuntu machine (scp)?

   1. Read General Notes
   2.

e.g. Assumed that remote Ubuntu machine have installed SSH Server service
     Read How to install SSH Server for remote administration service?
     Local files/folders location: localfile.txt
     Remote Ubuntu machine: 192.168.0.1
     Remote Ubuntu machine save location: /home/username/

   3.

scp -r localfile.txt username@192.168.0.1:/home/username/

Q: How to copy files/folders from remote Ubuntu machine into local machine (rsync)?

   1. Read General Notes
   2.

e.g. Assumed that remote Ubuntu machine have installed SSH Server service
     Read How to install SSH Server for remote administration service?
     Remote Ubuntu machine: 192.168.0.1
     Remote files/folders location: /home/username/remotefile.txt
     Local machine save location: . (current directory)

   3.

rsync -v -u -a --delete --rsh=ssh --stats username@192.168.0.1:/home/username/remotefile.txt .

Q: How to copy files/folders from local machine into remote Ubuntu machine (rsync)?

   1. Read General Notes
   2.

e.g. Assumed that remote Ubuntu machine have installed SSH Server service
     Read How to install SSH Server for remote administration service?
     Local files/folders location: localfile.txt
     Remote Ubuntu machine: 192.168.0.1
     Remote Ubuntu machine save location: /home/username/

   3.

rsync -v -u -a --delete --rsh=ssh --stats localfile.txt username@192.168.0.1:/home/username/

Q: How to SSH into remote Ubuntu machine via Windows machine?

   1. Read General Notes
   2.

e.g. Assumed that remote Ubuntu machine have installed SSH Server service
     Read How to install SSH Server for remote administration service?

   3. Download PuTTY: Here

Q: How to copy files/folders from/into remote Ubuntu machine via Windows machine?

   1. Read General Notes
   2.

e.g. Assumed that remote Ubuntu machine have installed SSH Server service
     Read How to install SSH Server for remote administration service?

   3. Download WinSCP: Here


DHCP Server

Q: How to install DHCP Server for automatic IP addresses assignment?

   1. Read General Notes
   2. Read How to add extra repositories?
   3.

e.g. Assumed that "eth0" is the interface for network card
     IP Address Range: 192.168.0.100 to 192.168.0.200
     Subnet Mask: 255.255.255.0
     DNS Servers: 202.188.0.133, 202.188.1.5
     Domains: tm.net.my
     Gateway Address: 192.168.0.1

   4.

sudo apt-get install dhcp3-server
sudo cp /etc/default/dhcp3-server /etc/default/dhcp3-server_backup
sudo gedit /etc/default/dhcp3-server

   5. Find this line

...
INTERFACES=""

   6. Replace with the following line

INTERFACES="eth0"

   7. Save the edited file (sample)
   8.

sudo cp /etc/dhcp3/dhcpd.conf /etc/dhcp3/dhcpd.conf_backup
sudo gedit /etc/dhcp3/dhcpd.conf

   9. Find this section

...
# option definitions common to all supported networks...
option domain-name "example.org";
option domain-name-servers ns1.example.org, ns2.example.org;

default-lease-time 600;
max-lease-time 7200;
...

  10. Replace with the following lines

# option definitions common to all supported networks...
#option domain-name "example.org";
#option domain-name-servers ns1.example.org, ns2.example.org;

#default-lease-time 600;
#max-lease-time 7200;

  11. Find this section

...
# A slightly different configuration for an internal subnet.
#subnet 10.5.5.0 netmask 255.255.255.224 {
# range 10.5.5.26 10.5.5.30;
# option domain-name-servers ns1.internal.example.org;
# option domain-name "internal.example.org";
# option routers 10.5.5.1;
# option broadcast-address 10.5.5.31;
# default-lease-time 600;
# max-lease-time 7200;
#}
...

  12. Replace with the following lines

# A slightly different configuration for an internal subnet.
subnet 192.168.0.0 netmask 255.255.255.0 {
  range 192.168.0.100 192.168.0.200;
  option domain-name-servers 202.188.0.133, 202.188.1.5;
  option domain-name "tm.net.my";
  option routers 192.168.0.1;
  option broadcast-address 192.168.0.255;
  default-lease-time 600;
  max-lease-time 7200;
}

  13. Save the edited file (sample)
  14.

sudo /etc/init.d/dhcp3-server restart


Database Server

Q: How to install MYSQL Database Server?

   1. Read General Notes
   2. Read How to add extra repositories?
   3.

sudo apt-get install mysql-server
mysqladmin -u root password db_user_password

Q: How to install MYSQL Control Center?

   1. Read General Notes
   2. Read How to add extra repositories?
   3. Read How to install MYSQL Database Server?
   4.

sudo apt-get install mysqlcc
sudo gedit /usr/share/applications/MySQLCC.desktop

   5. Insert the following lines into the new file

[Desktop Entry]
Name=MySQLCC
Comment=MySQLCC
Exec=mysqlcc
Icon=/usr/share/pixmaps/mysqlcc.xpm
Terminal=false
Type=Application
Categories=Application;System;

   6. Save the edited file (sample)
   7. Read How to refresh GNOME panel?
   8. Applications -> System Tools -> MySQLCC


Apache HTTP Server

Q: How to install Apache HTTP Server for HTTP (Web) Server service?

   1. Read General Notes
   2. Read How to add extra repositories?
   3.

sudo apt-get install apache2

   4. http://localhost

Q: How to install PHP for Apache HTTP Server?

   1. Read General Notes
   2. Read How to add extra repositories?
   3. Read How to install Apache HTTP Server for HTTP (Web) Server service?
   4.

sudo apt-get install php4
sudo /etc/init.d/apache2 restart
sudo gedit /var/www/testphp.php

   5. Insert the following line into the new file

<?php phpinfo(); ?>

   6. Save the edited file (sample)
   7. http://localhost/testphp.php

Q: How to install MYSQL for Apache HTTP Server?

   1. Read General Notes
   2. Read How to add extra repositories?
   3. Read How to install Apache HTTP Server for HTTP (Web) Server service?
   4. Read How to install PHP for Apache HTTP Server?
   5. Read How to install MYSQL Database Server?
   6.

sudo apt-get install libapache2-mod-auth-mysql
sudo apt-get install php4-mysql
sudo /etc/init.d/apache2 restart

Q: How to map URLs to folders outside /var/www/?

   1. Read General Notes
   2. Read How to install Apache HTTP Server for HTTP (Web) Server service?
   3.

sudo gedit /etc/apache2/conf.d/alias

   4. Insert the following lines into the new file

Alias /URL-path /location_of_folder/

<Directory /location_of_folder/>
   Options Indexes FollowSymLinks
   AllowOverride All
   Order allow,deny
   Allow from all
</Directory>

   5. Save the edited file (sample)
   6.

sudo /etc/init.d/apache2 restart

   7. http://localhost/URL-path

Q: How to change the default port number for Apache HTTP Server?

   1. Read General Notes
   2. Read How to install Apache HTTP Server for HTTP (Web) Server service?
   3.

e.g. Assumed that new port number is 78

   4.

sudo cp /etc/apache2/ports.conf /etc/apache2/ports.conf_backup
sudo gedit /etc/apache2/ports.conf

   5. Find this line

Listen 80

   6. Replace with the following line

Listen 78

   7. Save the edited file (sample)
   8.

sudo /etc/init.d/apache2 restart

   9. http://localhost:78

Q: How to parse RSS into PHP for Apache HTTP Server?

   1. Read General Notes
   2. Read How to install Apache HTTP Server for HTTP (Web) Server service?
   3. Read How to install PHP for Apache HTTP Server?
   4.

e.g. Assumed that RSS is DistroWatch.com - News

   5.

wget -c http://frankandjacq.com/ubuntuguide/magpierss-0.71.1.tar.gz
sudo mkdir /var/www/feeds
sudo tar zxvf magpierss-0.71.1.tar.gz -C /var/www/feeds/
sudo mv /var/www/feeds/magpierss-0.71.1/* /var/www/feeds/
sudo rm -fr /var/www/feeds/magpierss-0.71.1/
sudo chown -R www-data:root /var/www/feeds/
sudo gedit /var/www/feeds/index.php

   6. Insert the following lines into the new file

<!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Strict//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/DTD/xhtml1-strict.dtd">

<html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" lang="en" xml:lang="en">

<head>

<title>DistroWatch.com - News</title>

<meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=iso-8859-1"/>

<style type="text/css">
/*<![CDATA[*/
/*
DEFAULT TAG STYLES
*/

body {
  background: #ffffff;
  margin-left: 20px;
  font-family: bitstream vera sans,sans-serif;
  font-size: 9pt;
}

h1 {
  font-family: luxi sans,sans-serif;
  font-size: 15pt;
}

/*]]>*/
</style>

</head>

<body>

<?php

require_once 'rss_fetch.inc';
error_reporting(E_ERROR);

$url = 'http://distrowatch.com/news/dw.xml';
$rss = fetch_rss($url);

if ($rss) {

  echo "<h1>";
  echo "<a href=$url>", $rss->channel[title], "</a><br/>";
  echo "</h1>";

  foreach ($rss->items as $item ) {
    $url = $item[link];
    $title = $item[title];
    $description = $item[description];
    echo "<li>";
    echo "<b>Topic:</b> <a href=$url><b><u>$title</u></b></a><br/><br/>";
    echo "$description<br/><br/>";
    echo "</li>";
  }

}
else {
  echo "<a href=$url>", $url, "</a> - Server Down!<br/>";
}

?>

</body>

</html>

   7. Save the edited file (sample)
   8. http://localhost/feeds/index.php


FTP Server

Q: How to install FTP Server for File Transfer service?

   1. Read General Notes
   2. Read How to add extra repositories?
   3.

sudo apt-get install proftpd

Q: How to configure FTP user to be "jailed" (chrooted) into their home directory?

   1. Read General Notes
   2. Read How to install FTP Server for File Transfer service?
   3.

sudo cp /etc/proftpd.conf /etc/proftpd.conf_backup
sudo gedit /etc/proftpd.conf

   4. Find this section

...
DenyFilter \*.*/
...

   5. Add the following line below it

DefaultRoot ~

   6. Save the edited file (sample)
   7.

sudo /etc/init.d/proftpd restart

Q: How to configure FTP Server to allow anonymous FTP user to read only?

   1. Read General Notes
   2. Read How to install FTP Server for File Transfer service?
   3.

sudo cp /etc/proftpd.conf /etc/proftpd.conf_backup
sudo gedit /etc/proftpd.conf

   4. Append the following lines at the end of file

<Anonymous ~ftp>
  User ftp
  Group nogroup
  UserAlias anonymous ftp
  DirFakeUser on ftp
  DirFakeGroup on ftp
  RequireValidShell off
  MaxClients 10
  DisplayLogin welcome.msg
  DisplayFirstChdir .message
  <Directory *>
    <Limit WRITE>
      DenyAll
    </Limit>
  </Directory>
</Anonymous>

   5. Save the edited file (sample)
   6.

sudo /etc/init.d/proftpd restart

Q: How to configure FTP Server to allow anonymous FTP user to read/write?

   1. Read General Notes
   2. Read How to install FTP Server for File Transfer service?
   3.

sudo cp /etc/proftpd.conf /etc/proftpd.conf_backup
sudo gedit /etc/proftpd.conf

   4. Append the following lines at the end of file

<Anonymous ~ftp>
  User ftp
  Group nogroup
  UserAlias anonymous ftp
  DirFakeUser on ftp
  DirFakeGroup on ftp
  RequireValidShell off
  MaxClients 10
  DisplayLogin welcome.msg
  DisplayFirstChdir .message
</Anonymous>

   5. Save the edited file (sample)
   6.

sudo /etc/init.d/proftpd restart

Q: How to map anonymous FTP user to folders outside /home/ftp/?

   1. Read General Notes
   2. Read How to install FTP Server for File Transfer service?
   3.

sudo cp /etc/proftpd.conf /etc/proftpd.conf_backup
sudo gedit /etc/proftpd.conf

   4. Append the following lines at the end of file

<Anonymous /location_of_folder/>
  User ftp
  Group nogroup
  UserAlias anonymous ftp
  DirFakeUser on ftp
  DirFakeGroup on ftp
  RequireValidShell off
  MaxClients 10
  DisplayLogin welcome.msg
  DisplayFirstChdir .message
  <Directory *>
    <Limit WRITE>
      DenyAll
    </Limit>
  </Directory>
</Anonymous>

   5. Save the edited file (sample)
   6.

sudo /etc/init.d/proftpd restart

Q: How to change the default port number for FTP Server?

   1. Read General Notes
   2. Read How to install FTP Server for File Transfer service?
   3.

e.g. Assumed that new port number is 77

   4.

sudo cp /etc/proftpd.conf /etc/proftpd.conf_backup
sudo gedit /etc/proftpd.conf

   5. Find this line

Port 21

   6. Replace with the following line

Port 77

   7. Save the edited file (sample)
   8.

sudo /etc/init.d/proftpd restart

Q: How to ftp into remote Ubuntu machine via Windows machine?

   1. Read General Notes
   2.

e.g. Assumed that remote Ubuntu machine have installed FTP Server service
     Read How to install FTP Server for File Transfer service?

   3. Download FileZilla: Here


Streaming Media Server

Q: How to install GNUMP3d for Streaming Media Server service?

   1. Read General Notes
   2. Read How to add extra repositories?
   3. Read How to install Apache HTTP Server for HTTP (Web) Server service?
   4.

e.g. /var/music/ is the directory containing multimedia files

   5.

sudo apt-get install gnump3d

   6. http://localhost:8888

Q: How to change the default directory containing multimedia files for GNUMP3d?

   1. Read General Notes
   2. Read How to install GNUMP3d for Streaming Media Server service?
   3.

e.g. Assumed that new directory containing multimedia files is /home/music/

   4.

sudo cp /etc/gnump3d/gnump3d.conf /etc/gnump3d/gnump3d.conf_backup
sudo gedit /etc/gnump3d/gnump3d.conf

   5. Find this line

root = /var/music

   6. Replace with the following line

root = /home/music

   7. Find this line

user = gnump3d

   8. Replace with the following line

user = root

   9. Save the edited file (sample)
  10.

sudo /etc/init.d/gnump3d restart

  11. http://localhost:8888

Q: How to change the default port number for GNUMP3d?

   1. Read General Notes
   2. Read How to install GNUMP3d for Streaming Media Server service?
   3.

e.g. Assumed that new port number is 7878

   4.

sudo cp /etc/gnump3d/gnump3d.conf /etc/gnump3d/gnump3d.conf_backup
sudo gedit /etc/gnump3d/gnump3d.conf

   5. Find this line

port = 8888

   6. Replace with the following line

port = 7878

   7. Save the edited file (sample)
   8.

sudo /etc/init.d/gnump3d restart

   9. http://localhost:7878


Image Gallery Server

Q: How to install Gallery for Image Gallery Server service?

   1. Read General Notes
   2. Read How to add extra repositories?
   3. Read How to install Apache HTTP Server for HTTP (Web) Server service?
   4. Read How to install PHP for Apache HTTP Server?
   5.

sudo apt-get install gallery (when prompted to restart Apache, choose No or Cancel)
sudo apt-get install imagemagick
sudo apt-get install jhead
sudo apt-get install libjpeg-progs
sudo /etc/init.d/apache2 restart
sudo sh /usr/share/gallery/configure.sh

   6. http://localhost/gallery/setup/index.php
   7. Gallery Configuration

Gallery Configuration Wizard: Step 1
Next Step ->

Gallery Configuration Wizard: Step 2
General settings Tab ->
Admin password: Specify the password

Locations and URLs Tab ->
Album directory: /var/www/albums/
Temporary directory: /tmp/
Gallery URL: http://localhost/gallery
Albums URL: http://localhost/albums
Next Step -->

Gallery Configuration Wizard: Step 3
Next Step -->

Gallery Configuration Wizard: Step 4
Save Config ->

   8. http://localhost/gallery/albums.php

Q: How to configure Gallery to be accessible via Internet (Hostname or fix IP) or LAN (fix IP)?

   1. Read General Notes
   2. Read How to install Gallery for Image Gallery Server service?
   3.

e.g. Assumed that network and internet connections have been configured properly
     Internet (Hostname or fix IP) or LAN (fix IP): http://www.url.com

   4.

sudo cp /etc/gallery/config.php /etc/gallery/config.php_backup
sudo gedit /etc/gallery/config.php

   5. Find this section

...
$gallery->app->photoAlbumURL = "http://localhost/gallery";
$gallery->app->albumDirURL = "http://localhost/albums";
...

   6. Replace with the following lines

$gallery->app->photoAlbumURL = "http://www.url.com/gallery";
$gallery->app->albumDirURL = "http://www.url.com/albums";

   7. Save the edited file (sample)
   8. http://www.url.com/gallery/albums.php

Q: How to configure Gallery to be accessible via LAN (dynamic IP)?

   1. Read General Notes
   2. Read How to install Gallery for Image Gallery Server service?
   3.

e.g. Assumed that network connections have been configured properly
     LAN (dynamic IP): 192.168.0.1

   4.

sudo cp /etc/gallery/config.php /etc/gallery/config.php_backup
sudo gedit /etc/gallery/config.php

   5. Find this section

...
$gallery->app->photoAlbumURL = "http://localhost/gallery";
$gallery->app->albumDirURL = "http://localhost/albums";
...

   6. Replace with the following lines

$gallery->app->photoAlbumURL = "/gallery";
$gallery->app->albumDirURL = "/albums";

   7. Save the edited file (sample)
   8. http://192.168.0.1/gallery/albums.php

Q: How to backup/restore Gallery data?

   1. Read General Notes
   2. To backup Gallery data

sudo tar zcvf gallery.tgz /var/www/albums/ /etc/gallery/

   3. To restore Gallery data

sudo tar zxvf gallery.tgz -C /


Troubleshooting

Q: Configuring network interfaces... (taking too long to load)

   1. Read General Notes
   2. Read How to temporary skip boot-up services?

Q: Synchronizing clock to ntp.ubuntulinux.org... (taking too long to load)

   1. Read General Notes
   2. Read How to temporary skip boot-up services?
   3. Read How to permanently disable/enable boot-up services?

service_name = ntpdate

Q: How to disable system time/date from being reset to UTC (GMT)?

   1. Read General Notes
   2.

sudo cp /etc/default/rcS /etc/default/rcS_backup
sudo gedit /etc/default/rcS

   3. Find this line

...
UTC=yes
...

   4. Replace with the following line

UTC=no

   5. Save the edited file (sample)
   6. System -> Administration -> Time and Date

Set the correct time/date

   7.

sudo /etc/init.d/hwclock.sh restart

Q: How to configure sound to work properly in GNOME?

   1. Read General Notes
   2. Read How to add extra repositories?
   3.

sudo killall esd
sudo cp /etc/esound/esd.conf /etc/esound/esd.conf_backup
sudo gedit /etc/esound/esd.conf

   4. Find this section

...
auto_spawn=0
spawn_options=-terminate -nobeeps -as 5
...

   5. Replace with the following lines

auto_spawn=1
spawn_options=-terminate -nobeeps -as 2 -d default

   6. Save the edited file (sample)
   7.

sudo apt-get install libesd-alsa0
sudo gedit /etc/asound.conf

   8. Insert the following lines into the new file

pcm.card0 {
type hw
card 0
}

pcm.!default {
type plug
slave.pcm "dmixer"
}

pcm.dmixer {
type dmix
ipc_key 1025
slave {
pcm "hw:0,0"
period_time 0
period_size 2048
buffer_size 32768
rate 48000
}
bindings {
0 0
1 1
}
}

   9. Save the edited file (sample)
  10.

sudo ln -fs /usr/lib/libesd.so.0 /usr/lib/libesd.so.1

  11. System -> Preferences -> Sound
  12. Sound preferences

General Tab -> Sounds for events (Un-Checked)

  13. Save and close all opened applications, Reboot computer

Q: How to forcefully empty Trash in GNOME?

   1. Read General Notes
   2.

sudo rm -fr $HOME/.Trash/

Q: How to remove duplicate menu/menu items in GNOME?

   1. Read General Notes
   2.

rm -f $HOME/.config/menus/applications.menu

   3. Read How to refresh GNOME panel?

Q: How to refresh Places menu in GNOME (if mounts to /media/ in /etc/fstab does not show up)?

   1. Read General Notes
   2.

sudo /etc/init.d/dbus-1 restart


Upgrading Ubuntu

Q: How to upgrade from Hoary Hedgehog to Breezy Badger (experimental)?

   1. Read General Notes
   2.

Warning! This is still in it's development stage. Only use it for experimental purposes
         Doing this might break your entire system

   3.

sudo cp /etc/apt/sources.list /etc/apt/sources.list_backup
sudo gedit /etc/apt/sources.list

   4. Find this section

deb cdrom:[Ubuntu 5.04 _Hoary Hedgehog_ - Release i386 (20050407)]/ hoary main restricted


## Uncomment the following two lines to fetch updated software from the network
# deb http://us.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu hoary main restricted
# deb-src http://us.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu hoary main restricted

## Uncomment the following two lines to fetch major bug fix updates produced
## after the final release of the distribution.
# deb http://us.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu hoary-updates main restricted
# deb-src http://us.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu hoary-updates main restricted

## Uncomment the following two lines to add software from the 'universe'
## repository.
## N.B. software from this repository is ENTIRELY UNSUPPORTED by the Ubuntu
## team, and may not be under a free licence. Please satisfy yourself as to
## your rights to use the software. Also, please note that software in
## universe WILL NOT receive any review or updates from the Ubuntu security
## team.
# deb http://us.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu hoary universe
# deb-src http://us.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu hoary universe

# deb http://security.ubuntu.com/ubuntu hoary-security main restricted
# deb-src http://security.ubuntu.com/ubuntu hoary-security main restricted

# deb http://security.ubuntu.com/ubuntu hoary-security universe
# deb-src http://security.ubuntu.com/ubuntu hoary-security universe

   5. Replace with the following lines

#deb cdrom:[Ubuntu 5.04 _Hoary Hedgehog_ - Release i386 (20050407)]/ hoary main restricted


## Uncomment the following two lines to fetch updated software from the network
deb http://us.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu breezy main restricted
deb-src http://us.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu breezy main restricted

## Uncomment the following two lines to fetch major bug fix updates produced
## after the final release of the distribution.
deb http://us.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu breezy-updates main restricted
deb-src http://us.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu breezy-updates main restricted

## Uncomment the following two lines to add software from the 'universe'
## repository.
## N.B. software from this repository is ENTIRELY UNSUPPORTED by the Ubuntu
## team, and may not be under a free licence. Please satisfy yourself as to
## your rights to use the software. Also, please note that software in
## universe WILL NOT receive any review or updates from the Ubuntu security
## team.
deb http://us.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu breezy universe
deb-src http://us.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu breezy universe

deb http://security.ubuntu.com/ubuntu breezy-security main restricted
deb-src http://security.ubuntu.com/ubuntu breezy-security main restricted

deb http://security.ubuntu.com/ubuntu breezy-security universe
deb-src http://security.ubuntu.com/ubuntu breezy-security universe

deb http://archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu breezy multiverse
deb-src http://archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu breezy multiverse

   6. Save the edited file (sample)
   7.

sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get dist-upgrade

   8. Save and close all opened applications, Reboot computer

Revision: 4.15.wiki
Original URL: http://www.ubuntuguide.org (Mirror)
Author: Chua Wen Kiat (Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia)

Disclaimer

Copyright (C) 2004-2005 Chua Wen Kiat.

This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by the Free Software Foundation; either version 2 of the License, or (at your option) any later version.

This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the GNU General Public License for more details.
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UbuntuGuide (last edited 2011-10-21 21:20:32 by ashams)